Challenges in Implementing Talent Management in Culturally Diverse Organisations in Qatar: Research Design

Subject: Employee Management
Pages: 28
Words: 6161
Reading time:
23 min
Study level: PhD

Introduction

In the contemporary corporate world, management of talent has gained great importance and has been added as a key aspect of human resource management functions. This has mainly been due to the increasing critical role played by people in creating value through the various establishments of business. As the organisations strive to achieve the goals, there has been increased emphasis on attracting the best people, recruiting, training and managing them in order to ensure that the organisations realise value from their human resources. Van Der Zee and Otten (2012) defined talent management as the integration of different subdivisions of HR practices which consists of attracting talented employees, retaining these talented individuals, and developing their skills to contribute towards the organisation’s operational capacity.

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Also, talent management entails processes that are made to motivate employees to ensure a certain level of performance. These definitions become a core consideration as organisations try to develop strategies that will allow efficient talent management and adequate use of the recruits’ skills and abilities. The following section provides a summary of the literature review, explores the study objectives, methodology and design. Finally, the significance of the study will be provided.

Literature Review: Summary

Globalisation has had a significant effect on cultural orientation in Qatar. For example, Doha is one of the fast urbanising cities in the world which has experienced rapid transformation. Many international companies have set their regional offices in the city. This has resulted in a population which is composed of expatriates from across the globe. Qatar has become a melting pot for languages, cultures and traditions. In addition, the advent of globalisation has led to increased flow of cultural products to and from Qatar. Due to such effects, it is common for organisations operating in Qatar to employ people from different cultures; hence, the need to put in place talent management strategies that embrace diversity that may exist in a firm. It is worth noting that most of the past studies have concentrated on talent management as a general topic. However, the emergence of culturally diverse organisations necessitates the current study. Therefore, the following focuses on the study that is to be applied to investigate the challenges faced in implementing talent management in culturally diverse organisations.

From the literature review, it was established that the organisational systems play an important role in talent management. It was due to the development of what can be described as the “talent mindset” that the belief arose that organisations were only as strong as their “star employees”. One example of this practice that can be seen today is the high executive compensation packages that are used as a means of retaining “stars” within the organisation (Hofhuis, Van Der Zee &Otten 2012).

The different studies reviewed also showed that an introduction of diverse strategies that enhance motivation of the employees is crucial in the management of talents. The management of the talents based on either strategy related to the situational factors. Similarly, Hofhuis, Van Der Zee and Otten (2012) pointed out that the use of varied approaches should be based on the type of the human resource and application of EQ leadership to establish the best strategy to be applied in different scenarios (Hofhuis, Van Der Zee &Otten 2012). A critical analysis of the literature review showed that the tools outlined in the literature were overbalanced towards the management of diversity instead of the management of talents in a multicultural environment. However, Reilly (2008) examined the integration of the motivation factors with the identified tools and indicated that they can be applied as the basis of talent management. The tools included Parochial Multicultural Management Strategy, the Ethnocentric Multicultural Management Strategy, the Synergistic Multicultural and Management Strategy. These findings form the basis of this study, which focuses on the strategies applied by the human resource managers in order to manage the talents of employees.

Objectives of the Study

In the 21st century, the operations of the companies are faced with many challenges. This relates to the dynamic and increasing complex environment of business operation. One of the challenges relates to the retention of the talented employees. As a result, Capelli (2008) pointed out to the importance of coming up with mechanism to establish the talent that is with an organisation and consequently devising strategies to enhance the acquiring and maintenance of the talent. Capelli (2008) added that talent management has developed significantly since the mid 1990s to the present time. Despite, the development and the current emphasis on talent management, there are many debates that relate to the value, models, role and application of talent management in the organisations.

For instance, enterprises are faced with the issues of whether they can afford not to put in place approaches that are required to manage talents. The issue has been aggravated by the emergence of multicultural organisations and hence, the need for blended approaches that take into consideration the different cultural orientations and their potential influence on the management of talents. Therefore, for multinational organisations, approaches for management of talents present a great opportunity to build organisational effectiveness. Knowledge of talent management forms the basis for drawing strategies for recruiting, nurturing and keeping the talent. Based on the understanding of the implications of talent management in the current dynamics of business environment, the objectives to guide the study and their rationale are as outlined in the following discussion.

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Recent studies point to the fact that the issue regarding the choice of an appropriate strategy for talent management has been developing for quite long (O’Mahony, 2015). The existing talent management strategies leave much to be desired in relation to the means of distributing roles and responsibilities among the staff members, promoting further professional growth, and encouraging successful communication among the members of the organisation. In relation to Qatar, the country has experienced exponential economic growth. This has mainly been due to the oil revenues and the open economic policies that have attracted many foreign companies to the country. In addition, the country has experienced an influx of foreign nationals seeking employment in the companies operating in Qatar. The implication for these developments is that most of the companies have to deal with people from different cultures.

With the increasing competition, the human resource managers have to look for strategies to acquire the most qualified employees to work in their organisations and ensure that they utilise their skills to the maximum. This brings in the aspect of challenges in implementing talent management in the culturally diverse organisations. Thus, it becomes important to find out the challenges that some of the organisations have faced in striking ‘fit’ in talent management and the measures that they have enacted. Therefore, the study explores the various approaches that have been embraced by the organisations.

Primary Objective

To find out the approaches that can be applied by human resource managers to enhance management of talents in multicultural organisations.

Specific Objectives

In order to attain the primary objective, the following will be the sub-objectives that will be used for the study.

  1. To investigate the current management processes that are used by companies to ensure their employees provide value.
  2. To find out whether cultural differences influence the strategies that are employed by organisations in the management of its human resources.
  3. To learn how different multi-nationals manage talent in relation to expatriates and locals.

Research Questions

The management of personnel is not a new discourse in the endeavour by organisations to improve their performances. In fact, Lockwood (2006) pointed out that throughout the history; different concepts have been applied with the main goal to create value for organisations by getting the best out of the workforces. In talent management, there are different concepts that have been fronted as the main paths for ensuring that an organisation benefits from its workforce. The concepts include human resource management, personnel management and the strategic human resource management. However, the argument by some business scholars has been that these concepts relate to same thing, in which the key focus is to ensure performance of the organisation. However, based on the literature review, it was established that the main concern for the concepts is to ensure that organisations realise value from their employees by putting in place strategies that motivate and enhance the competence of their workforce; hence, the need for talent management. Based on this understanding and the objectives outlined for the study, the following questions will be used to guide the study.

  1. What are the current management strategies employed by organisations to ensure that employees perform as expected?
  2. Are there specific measures that multicultural organisations put in place to manage and retain the capabilities of the employees?
  3. Is it possible for multicultural organisations to develop a customised model to manage the talents of its personnel?

Research Methodology

Research methodology involves the application of the practical measures in order to sample, collect and analyse data (Bronfenbrenner & Evans 2000). This is achieved by application of different sampling designs such as cross-sectional, descriptive, case studies, experimental, explorative and longitudinal research designs. The areas of research methodology have been extensively studied and thus, there are definitions and rationale that inform selection of a particular research design. For instance, research methodology has been defined as the process of applying systematic steps in order to discover meaning or reasons for existence of a given situation (Kothari 2005). Kothari (2005) noted that methodology is the rationale for adopting specific mechanisms in the process of carrying out an investigation.

The mechanisms employed by a researcher to carry out execute a study are called research designs. Due to the fact that there are varied research designs, the underlying principle for settling on a research design is to ensure that the researcher understands the cause of a problem and puts in place measures are necessary to get solutions for the issue at hand. Silverman (2006) added that research methodology can best be described by exploring the various techniques that are applied in order to discover knowledge. The main techniques include data collection processes, data synthesis, and techniques for establishing the validity and reliability of the data obtained (Weber 2010). According to Bronfenbrenner and Evans (2000), the process of ensuring validity and reliability of the data collected are critical in any scientific research as they form the basis for establishing credibility of research. Thus, in the present study, a specific research method will be used as the basis of understanding talent management in multicultural organisations.

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It is important to note that the purpose of a scientific study is to discover answers to the research questions. Therefore, in line with the core objectives of any research, i.e. to gain familiarity with the phenomenon under investigation, this study explores the difficulties experienced by managers in ensuring that they attract and maintain the right talent in organisations that are culturally diverse. Besides, the rationale for research methodology is to lay the path that is to be followed in the process of answering the research questions (Neumann 2007).

In the present study, the concept of research methodology can be understood by first exploring research philosophy. This will form the basis for in-depth understanding of the current study and its implications. Research philosophy will also provide the justification for the selection of the study design that is to be used for this study.

Research Philosophy

The main aim of a systematic research is to develop knowledge; as such, research philosophy is concerned with understanding how knowledge exists or the rationale for having a given rationale. According to Creswell (2013), research philosophy centres on the formulation of assumptions and beliefs which form the initial stages of getting answers to the research questions. Thus, research philosophy points out to the assumptions the researcher has formed about the issue under investigation. Just as there are different research designs, there are varied research philosophies which include pragmatism, positivism, realism and interpretivism. The current study mainly touches on a business phenomenon, bearing in mind that the main philosophical paradigms applied in social and business studies are mainly positivism and interpretivism, this section defines the definitions for the two philosophies.

The positivism approach is normally termed as the as a ‘scientific approach’ for discovering knowledge. The positivism philosophy “reflects a deterministic philosophy in which causes probably determine effects or outcomes” (Creswell 2013, p.7). This implies that the positivism approach is highly structured; also, it uses large samples, and is mainly aligned to quantitative measurements, but sometimes qualitative measurement can be applied. On the other hand, interpretivism paradigm is based on social constructionism and hermeneutics in which the samples used are mainly small and the type of measurement is qualitative (Weber 2010). The signification for this is that studies that relate to human behavior are better investigated by application of the interpretivistism philosophy. It is worth noting that in some studies, both the positivism and interpretivism can be used. This is normally the case in mixed study methods. However, in the current study, the philosophical paradigm will be interpretivism.

Rationale for the Philosophical Paradigm: Interpretivism

The positivists and interpretivists paradigms are the basis of assumptions that underlie social research. Positivism is an approach that is based on the belief on universal laws; thus, it insists on neutrality and objectivity. The implication for this is that positivists rely on the natural science approach such as testing theories and hypotheses (Black 2006). These approaches are the basis for avoiding personal biases. However, the rationale for settling on the interpretivism approach was informed by the issue under investigation and the nature of the data to be collected. The interpretivism approach is rooted in human sciences. Therefore, researchers aligned to the interpretivism approach believe that a clear understanding of the experiences of people forms a crucial platform for providing explanation, prediction and control. Hence, through the study of human experiences, interpretivists can capture meaning that can be used to understand human interactions without necessarily sticking to statistical regularities and correlations that characterise positivism approach (Black 2006).

The main objectives of the interpretivists are study human behaviour and attach meaning to the existence of the behaviour (Neumann 2007). Thus, the focus is on a given study matter and does not necessarily generalise and forecast the origin and outcome. Putting into the consideration that the basis of carrying out an investigation is to find meaning, the interpretivism philosophy is best suited for discovering knowledge about talent management in the culturally diverse organisations. Thus, the main constructs under investigation are the challenges the human resource managers face in the implementation of strategies that are supposed to create value from their workforces, how the cultural dimension influences the approaches, and the general dynamics that relate to talent management in the perspective of the human resource management. Thus, in the current study, the researcher’s main aim is to understand specific context of talent management in multicultural organisations, hence; the rationale for the interpretivism.

Qualitative Method

Qualitative research methods entail processes that are used in social sciences to gain deep understanding of phenomenon instead of relying on surface description. According to Barroso, Gollop, and Sandelowski (2003), qualitative research methods provide textual descriptions about the experiences of people in a given area of investigation. Thus, qualitative method is suited in the exploring the attitudes, perceptions and opinions of people and how they interrelate. The common qualitative methods include use of in-depth interviews, focus group discussions, and participant observation. The selection of the qualitative methods is influenced by the nature of the study and the data required. Silverman (2006) added that the qualitative methods allow greater spontaneity; for example, the use of open ended interview questions that give the respondent with opportunity to shed light on the opinions, experiences and emotions about the subject being studied.

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Silverman (2006) pointed out qualitative methods provide insights into the phenomenon under the study by uncovering thoughts and opinions. Also, it ensures in depth view of the study phenomenon by use of primary sources of data such as observation, interviews, participation, and focus group discussions. Each method is used based on the specific type of data and feasibility (Denk 2010). In the context of the current study, the method to be used for the data collection will be use of interviews. The main data collection method for this approach is use of primary sources. In the present study, the method of qualitative data collection to be applied will be the use of interviews.

Rationale for using qualitative method over Quantitative Method

In order to determine the suitable research method, there is the need to determine the type of data to be collected. This makes it critical to consider two approaches to research, which include the inductive and deductive. The deductive approach focuses on causality. Inductive approach is used to investigate an upcoming issue, while the inductive approach studies an already researched phenomenon in a new perspective. The inductive approach is mainly related to qualitative research while the deductive approach is related to quantitative approach. It is worth noting that quantitative methods are involved in collection of empirical data that can be subjected to numerical manipulations. This can be used in testing hypotheses and drawing correlations. Even though the method is important in quantification of attitudes and behaviours, the current study focuses on understanding how organisations are involved in management of talents in multicultural contexts. This necessitates collection of data on the experiences of key people. The data provide textual descriptions to uncover the constructs of the phenomena being studied.

Denk (2010) emphasised that qualitative research is used to ensure in-depth understanding of the opinions, motivations, and reasons that inform a given behaviour. This is informed by the inductive approach; the inductive approaches are used in studies where theories are being tested. As pointed out in the literature review, the interpretation of the study will be based on parochial, ethnocentric, and synergistic strategies. Thus, to ensure consistency with the general patterns of inductive studies, qualitative strategy will be used. Consequently, the study will rely on primary data to help in the interpretation of meaning.

Research Design

Methodology incorporates the set of methods and tools for carrying out a particular study. The current definitions of the subject matter point to the fact that a methodology is primarily used as the means of mapping the further process of conducting a study (Shaari et al. 2014). Hence, it forms the basis for the selection of the research design. Denk (2010) described research design as the systematic planning of actions that are applied in the collection of data. As outlined in the methodology section, there are different study designs which are normally selected based on the nature of the study and the philosophical paradigm. For this study, the research design selected is explorative.

Rationale for Explorative Study Design

Exploratory research provides rich quality information about the issue under the study. The study design focuses on the discovery of ideas and helps the researcher to have a clear understanding of the issue being studied. The explorative study is qualitative in nature. Concerning the current research, talent management in any organisation is a function of the HRM. Different strategies can be applied by the HRM in order to attract and retain the best talents in the organisation (Becker, Huselid& Beatty 2009). From the inferences drawn from the literature review, it was noted that the parochial, ethnocentric, and synergistic strategies would be used as a frame of reference in order to examine processes employed by HR and the reasons that inform the strategies.

Past studies have shown that the human talent management has been evolving over time. The human resource managers have been devising different approaches to attract, develop, and retain the human resource capital. The evolvement of the talent management has been due to the change in the environment for conducting business and the increased interaction of employees from different cultures. Therefore, in order to answer the outlined study questions and subsequent reasons for the changing business environment, the explorative research is best suited for the discovery of the approaches used by human resource managers to manage talent in the multicultural organisations.

Sample and Sampling Design

Sampling

Sampling is a crucial process in a research. It entails identification of the study subjects that are supposed to represent the target population; Sans (2011), stated that it entails getting the subset of the entire units being investigated. Therefore, in order to obtain the subset, a researcher should ensure that the study population is clearly defined. The rationale for this is to set the stage for a sampling process that will ensure a representative sample from which generalisations can be made. For the present study, the main concern is to understand the challenges faced in the implementation of the talent management in culturally diverse organisations; with key focus on the organisations operating in Qatar, which have at least one hundred employees. These organisations will form the sampling frame for the study. The sampling process will involve purposive sampling procedures. Selection criteria for the study participants will be limited to the scope of the study, i.e. only organisations based in Qatar that have implemented talent management and culturally diverse workforce will be studied.

Purposive Sampling

Purposive sampling entails selection of the sample or the study subject by application of personal judgment. It entails use of discretion to identify specific people who have a comprehensive understanding of the topic under study or who have experienced the phenomenon on first handThus, purposive sampling is the deliberate selection of the informant due to inherent specific characteristics. According to Saunders, Lewis and Thornhill (2009), purposive sampling helps the researcher to select cases or individuals that are informative and have adequate knowledge about the issue being proved. The informants are selected by virtue of experience, knowledge, and the willingness of the participant to reveal the required information.

The fact that personal discretion is applied in the sampling process makes it non random in nature. Even though this has been cited as the one of the strengths for purposive sampling, it has been argued to be likely source of personal bias. Nevertheless, Sans (2011) emphasised that the method is paramount when the information required can only be obtained from specific people. As such, not all organisations operating in Qatar will meet the inclusion criterion for the study. As a result, the purposive sampling procedure presents the best option for the researcher to apply his/her judgement to choose the people who can provide the required information. In the current study, purposive sampling will be used to select the human resource managers and employees to be interviewed. The study participants will be selected from different cultures. In the process of purposive sampling, human resource managers who have not been working in the Qatar market for the past 5 years will not be included in the study.

Sample Size

The sample size to be used for the study will include middle level managers and 8 employees. Four employees will be from Qatar and 4 expatriates working in Qatar. The participants will be drawn from firms operating in Qatar. The main reason for selecting middle level managers is due to the fact that they are involved in execution of most strategies for the firms. In addition, the middle level managers understand the challenges that relate to organisational culture due to their first hand interaction wit most of the employees and line managers. Thus, they are best placed to provide the right information on talent management and challenges the organisations face. In addition, the sample size will include equal number of local and expatriates employees. The rationale for selecting the participants is to get their experiences and describe the challenges they face when working in the multicultural organisations. Also, the employees will provide insights on how they share knowledge from each other. The inclusion of the expatriates and locals will assist in getting their perception in relation to talent management in the multicultural organisations.

Methods of Data Collection

Collection of data is a key stage in actualisation of a research process. Depending on the nature of the study being undertaken, there is the need to select a method of data collection that will ensure the right outcome in terms of the information being sought (Kothari 2005). Data can be primary or secondary sources. In this case, primary sources of data will be used. The primary source of data will entail interviewing the human resource managers.

Primary sources

Primary sources are the original materials, which are used to provide data. They provide first hand data; this entails providing direct experiences in relation to the topic under review; they give information in the original form when it is not interpreted. There are different ways of collecting primary data. They include observations, interviews, trial transcripts, experiments and personal narratives. In the current study the data collection will be by use of interviews. Silverman (2006) established that collection of data using primary sources plays an imperative role in research projects. The selection of the right method of data collection determines the credibility of the information. However, it is worth noting that the reliance on primary data is likely to lead to personal bias. To overcome the challenge, application of well designed data collection instruments will help in overcoming the challenge. The primary source of data collection for the study will be interviews.

Interviews

Interviews consist of discussions between the interviewer and the informant; this takes place mainly on one-on-one basis. The aim of the interview is to obtain specific information about a study topic. Denzin and Lincoln (2008) noted that interviews are good research instruments that can be applied in collection of information in order to gain insights into trends and strategies used in an organisation. Interviews provide descriptive information. Also, they aid in determining the experiences of people and the outcomes they have witnessed in the process of implementation of different strategies. There are different means of conducting an interview, i.e. in can be in person or through teleconferencing or simply over the phone. However, it is worth noting that there are differences between interviews, which are normally used for qualitative research ad surveys that are usually used for quantitative researches. The differences are mainly in the level of structure used and the interaction. In interviews, there are more interactions and hence the interviewer can control the direction of the interview unlike the surveys where the questionnaires may be sent to the respondent.

The use of interviews ensures that data is obtained from primary sources. The interviews can be administered in different forms. The interview can be standardized, semi structured or unstructured. Silverman (2006) stated that qualitative research can be undertaken by use interviews based on the type of information being sought and the experience of the interviewer. The type of interview used affects the reliability of the study. For instance, Silverman (2006) argued that the use of standardized interview questions increases the reliability of a study. However, this does not rule out the reliability of unstructured or semi structured interviews. In the current study, most of the data to be collected about the challenges faced by the HR managers in the talent management will be qualitative in nature. In the current study, most of the data is primarily obtained from the experts purposively identified in the sampling process. As a result, use of interviews will be suited to extract the required information as per research objectives. Based on the logistical implications of meeting the managers, face-to-face or teleconferencing interview processes will be used to gather the required data. To ensure that the research questions are comprehensively answered, semi structured interviews with probing questions will be used.

Data Analysis

Data analysis entails the systematic process of synthesising data collected in order to make logical conclusions. Data analysis makes it for researcher to draw inferences (Creswell 2013). In research, there are different tools for analysing data. According to Creswell (2013), tools of data analysis entail applications used to synthesise the data and present it in a manner that allows the drawing of correlations. This is normally carried out by use of different approaches that may include use of statistical software. The process of data analysis is linked directly to the research method chosen for the study as well as the way in which the data is collected (Silverman 2006). In qualitative analysis, one of the most common methods of synthesising data is by the application of thematic analysis.

Thematic Data Analysis

Thematic analysis examines patterns within a set of data. The patterns are the themes that describe a phenomenon based on the study questions. According to Braun and Clarke (2006), theme analysis aids in organising the data set in detail and interpretation of the various aspect of the study.Braun and Clarke (2006, p. 82) noted that, “a theme captures something important about the data in relation to the research question and represents some level of patterned response or meaning within the data set”. The main reason for using thematic analysis is to ensure that there is clear description of the approaches that are applied in the management of talent in culturally diverse organisations. This will be critical in the production of the final report that is consistent and distinctive.

Thematic analysis entails extracting the key concepts from the study. However, Dixon-Woods et al. (2005) argued that the identification of the key concepts is not always very easy. Therefore, to resolve the problem, thematic analysis entails a stepwise process. One of the key steps is coding of the data. In the current study, the thematic analysis steps will entail converting the results obtained from the semi-structured interview into electronic form. In the second step, the data will then be coded and organised into related areas of the analytical and descriptive themes as per the study questions, i.e. through inductive coding. These processes will be carried by use of NVIVO software, statistical software for qualitative data analysis. The third step will entail generation of analytical themes; this step is dependent on the judgement of the researcher.

Reliability and validity

Validity and reliability are fundamental concepts in any systematic research. Reliability is concerned with the quality of measures, i.e. it deals with the ‘repeatability’ of the measures taken. According to Oladipo, Adenaike and Ojewumi (2010) it is the extent to which a study can obtain consistent results over time. Also, reliability involves the accurate representation of the population under study. Golafshani (2003) noted that it focuses on the ability to achieve repeatability of the results if different methodologies are employed. On the other hand, is concerned with establishing whether the data gathered meets the set standards of a scientific study. The validity of a study depends on the methods applied to collect data.

According to Golafshani (2003), validity is the appropriateness of the study design. It is through a valid method of data collection that significant results can be obtained. In the proposed study, both the validity and reliability will be based on proper designs of the data collection instruments and sampling procedures. As indicated, the sampling design is purposive sampling in which only selected managers and employees who have crucial information will be included in the study. The study participants will be people who have worked in the multicultural firms in Qatar. The application of interview will ensure credence of the information about talent management in a multicultural organisations operating in specifically in Qatar; hence make it reliable in drawing generalisations.

Ethical Issues

Ethics entails the standard behaviour that guides the relationships between people. In research, the main aim of ethics is to ensure that the study participants are not harmed or the research activities do not have adverse consequences. Weber (2010) emphasised that ethical considerations in any study are philosophical in nature and are influenced by the nature of the study and the prevailing societal norms. In any research, the main parties include the researcher, the user of the results, and the participants. In the current study, primary source of data collection will be used. There will be interviews for the human resource managers and secondary data collection. Therefore, there are likelihoods of ethical issues in the research approach. For instance, the collection of the data should be limited to the agreed area of study. The application of the qualitative research in which the semi structured interviews are to be used makes it possible for the researcher to recognise the potential ethical scenarios that are likely to be faced and, hence, prepares in advance how to avoid the challenges. For example, asking for consent from the employees and human resource managers before the interviews.

Therefore, in the proposed study, the researcher will put into consideration the issues that may bring about ethical challenges and address them before hand by putting in place measures that will ensure that the research remains within the stipulated scope and the obtained information is used for the sole purposes of the study.

Significance of the Study

In the business circles, it is agreeable that human resource managers should ensure that they take measures to add value to the organisations. Talent management is one of the strategies that can be applied to influence performance of business. Tarique and Schuler (2010) stated that in a competitive environment, the talent management serves as a key driver for the success of organisations. As a result, there is the need to put in place-integrated strategies that are supposed to increase workplace productivity. This is achieved by organisational processes that attract, develop, and retain people who have the essential skills and the aptitude to meet the needs of the business. Morton (2004) added that effective management offers value to the business. However, Cohn, Khurana and Reeves (2005) acknowledged that talent management is a complex phenomenon that human resource managers have to deal with; and it has been evolving over time.

Talent management is influenced by different factors that may be internal or external. The internal factors include the organisational culture and human resource policies (Lewis & Heckman 2006). The external factors include economic and cultural influences. In general, the factors that affect nurturing of talent include the culture, the management processes and the ability to realise diversity within an organisation. There are myriad of studies that have been carried out over the past decade, in the researches, there have been increased focus on talent management. Companies have moved from the past reactive leadership styles where reward was mainly by punishment to a proactive management in which the goal is to harness talent. As a result, some organisations consider employees as partners in business; thus, they engage them in the critical decision making processes and even in the formulation of their salaries. This is the case when dealing with the talented and the perceived top notch employees. The processes make the employees to feel part of the organisation and are therefore motivated to work hard to enhance the strategic goals of the organisation.

It is common to see that many organisations competing for the best talents in the market (Reilly 2008). Despite the competition to get the best talent in the market, past studies have shown that talent can be developed within an organisational setting by instigating measures that enhance the capacity of the employees. This signifies the importance of putting in place strategies to develop talents within an organisation. Therefore, the study will establish the challenges that many organisations face in the endeavour to attract, maintain, and develop talents. The findings will be critical in understanding the probable measures that can be implemented within an organisation to better their strategies. The information will also be important for human resource managers in different companies that have faced the challenges. Secondly, the research will be significant in the academic circles. Besides fulfilling the educational purpose, it will add to the existing literature on talent management especially in the culturally diverse organisations.

Conclusion

Strategies to improve the performance of organisations through talent management are imperative for entities that want to remain competitive. This becomes more important in the case of organisations with a culturally diverse workforce, a key phenomenon in the 21st century, even for the small companies. Therefore, the need for researches to understand the challenges that such organisations encounter is paramount. The processes to be applied for entire research have been captured by outlining the study methodology and the study designs. Key to the study method as identified in the study was use of qualitative research strategy in order to inform the research process. The rationale for selecting the method was informed by the inductive nature of the issue under the study and the need to acquire in-depth information.

Therefore, it is expected that the use of purposive sampling procedures, the application of semi structured interviews, and the application of the thematic analysis will help in achieving pertinent information about talent management in culturally diverse organisations and shape the practice of human resource management in relation to the way the managers create value for organisations by leveraging on the human resource capital.

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