To create positive morale and improve commitment, employers must find ways to motivate their employees. However, amongst Industrial Organizational practitioners, debates are circulating over which motivation concept is most affective: intrinsic (internal motivators) or extrinsic (external motivators). The purpose of the final paper is to answer the question; which type of motivation is more inclusive to organizations? And what tools will be used to measure motivation and uphold its validity and reliability.
For a very long time, employers have not been able to asses their employees effectively due to the application of archaic methods in measuring and evaluating their motivation. On this regard therefore, it calls for employers to create positive attitude and commitment improvement among their workers. For quite some time, industrial organizational practitioners have been in various debates concerning the concept of motivation among the employees both in the private sector and the public sector. As it has been revealed by Loo (2001), motivation factors either are intrinsic (originate from within the organization) or are extrinsic (originate from outside the organization). The success of any organization whether profit oriented or not lies behind its harmony and coherence among all the entities involved.
On this respect therefore, employers whether in the private or the public sector should motivate all their employees to achieve their desired goals and objectives; which entirely lies much on workers’ attitude and motivation towards attending their routine work. Perhaps Farrell (2001) postulates that, organizations should devise various types of motivation to ensure the contentment of their employees which both in the short and the long run would place the organization high in terms of performance as all the activities are carried out accordingly. In this case, the main purpose of motivation by employers towards their workers is to develop a positive attitude and morale towards work, which would enhance better performance of the organization.
Generally, according to Svensson & Wood (2007), motivation among employees by their employers can be described as one of the key strategies towards achieving a positively motivated work force which in turn results in both qualitative and quantitative production. Employers are entrusted with the role of ensuring the pursuit of the best type motivation; which would see the organization achieve its general laid down objectives and goals both in the long-run and in the short-run.
To provide a favorable working environment which can keep workers motivated in various social organizations, there various considerations which employers and managers ought to put into place. Precisely, the most crucial is to advance the working environment to match with workers expectations. As indicated by Boardman, Et al. (2010), a favorable environment, reputable provides a sense of inclusiveness and leads to employee’s satisfaction. Grant (1998) argued that, employee motivation is directly proportional to the organizations’ performance and profitability. From the Herzberg’s theory, a good working environment is worthwhile than a better salary thus a good way of motivating workers. According to Kimball et al. (2006), workers may be pulled to a company due to its pay; but their duration of stay and efficiency is determined by the association with their direct supervisors as postulated by Currall (2003).With this in mind, output, prosperity, employee’s retention and workplace wellbeing can only be ensured through the adoption of Herzberg’s two-factor theory.
According to Boardman, Et al. (2010), it should be emphasized that, the management of social organizations should consider creating a favorable and healthy working environment to improve employee motivation. Further, the management should facilitate employee recognition since it is an effective method of motivating workers. In this case, the company should pay tribute to employees, bonus, incentives as a way of acknowledging the employees thus increasing their morale and efficiency as explained by Boardman, Et al. (2010). Importantly, it is worth noting that use of praise may be very powerful in influencing workers behavior despite that it is less costly as explained by Cohan (2002). Many social organizations should restructure their managerial frameworks to ensure employees’ ideas and opinions are accommodated thus helping in increasing their motivation.
Relevance of motivation in organizations
According to Landy & Conte (2010), for any organization, the enhancement of efficiency and effectiveness of its activities is of crucial significance, whose measure lies on the laid down objectives and goals. On this regard, organizations are faced with the challenge of ensuring the motivation of its employees in which; this would entirely constitute of its overall performance. More specifically, the success and failure of any organization would depend on the attitudes of employees towards work which is entirely determined by the level of motivation among the employees. On this basis, employers should by all means try to develop a motivating environment for employees who would determine the success of the organization
Perhaps, as revealed by McNutt & Batho (2005), non-motivated workers tend to fail to accomplish their duties effectively, which in turn results into inefficiency in the entire system. It thus leaves no doubt that; employees should be motivated in various aspects to increase their efficiency in carrying out of various activities. More specifically, employers should use various tools and instruments to motivate employees like a low pressure working environment, use of non-threatening language and ensuring that, employees are not strictly timed in their usual activities. Certainly if employers encompass the stated strategies in their management, employees would be encouraged in their work and this would boost the organization’s level of production.
Intrinsic factors affecting employees’ motivation in the private sector
As depicted by Mardjono (2005), the management problem of employee’s motivation in many social organizations in the private sector, has been due to lack of commitment by employers and the entire management fraternity in such organizations. In the contemporary society the problem of employees demotivation has been very devastating in many organizations to an extent that, their level of performance has not been credible leading to loss of reputations and loss of many experienced employees in the past. Worse enough, the organizations experience an acute loss of employees, leading to a very devastated level of production enhancing their lack of competence in the entire target markets.
According to McNutt & Batho (2005), it is evident that the performance and profitability of many organizations both in the private and public sectors have stagnated and steadily declining in their profitability as a result of employee demotivation. In connection with this, poor relationship and motivation of employees with the management has contributed to many employees leaving their jobs to search other opportunities elsewhere. In such cases, the drastic loss of experienced workforce in such organizations has been revealed to threaten the sustainability of such organizations, and the achievement of their established goals and objectives which may consequently lead to their closure as a result of competition. Further, many organizations should put into considerations their employees’ ideas and suggestions in which failure to that, they would be impacting negatively on their employees level of motivation which may adversely affect their level of performance (Mardjono, 2005)
Extrinsic factors affecting employees’ motivation in the private sector
Employee motivation has been a very serious issue in many organizations which needs to be given urgent attention or else the organizations would quit from the market due to the stiff competition and rapid loss of experienced workforce. As it has been revealed by McNutt & Batho (2005), when employees learn the conditions of other related organizations concerning the employees’ welfare, they may get motivated or demotivated depending on the conditions. More specifically, if working environments for other related organizations are more favorable than what they experience, they usually get demotivated and lack morale of working in their current organizations.
The working environment in many social organizations has not been favorable, which leads to a decline in employees’ competence and productivity. Perhaps, according to Vinten (2002), many organizations should incorporate and involve employees in various innovation programs so as to capture their employees’ commitment by making them feel being part of such organizations. By so doing, the organizations would be offering for development of dynamic workers about the changing society which in the long-run would lead to a coherent and harmonious working environment, leading to high motivation. (Vinten, 2002) From a wide perspective, the crisis facing many social organizations has led to loss of income, investments, employee departure, high competition, and decline in profits among other adverse effects. On basis of this report, adoption of the Hertzberg’s two-factor theory will ensure improvement of employee’s motivation and thus enhancing the improvement of many social organizations in terms of their performance (Vinten, 2002).
Intrinsic factors affecting the level of employees’ motivation in the public
A problem of poor and unfavorable working environment has been identified in many social organizations, which has greatly demoralized their workforce. As revealed in many social organizations, employees’ opinions and ideas are never considered as well as depriving employees their freedom in various innovations. In addition, many social organizations in the public sector have been revealed to be lacking the capacity to facilitate self managed teams; thus discouraging autonomy and decision making responsibility among their employees. According to Mardjono (2005), the administration of the workforce in organizations should be decentralized to provide a favorable working environment for workers to execute their duties more effectively. On the other hand, a decentralized system of workers would ensure that workers are given humble time and that managers would make limited interruptions (Parr, 1992).
Extrinsic factors affecting employees’ motivation in the public sector
Researches carried in various organizations have shown that; poor motivation and management of employees can lead to collapse of the whole organization as in the case of the Enron Corporation, which is one of the key US energy companies as expounded by Carson (2003). Further, as Grant (1998) suggests, employee motivation is directly proportional to organizational performance and profitability. The issue of losing experienced employees is overwhelming since it has led to stiff competition on the company’s products thus leading to decline in profits. Research has also shown that, motivation is responsible for the difference in performance between different organizations based on power delegation as Carson (2003) puts it. Further, Tremblay (2008) postulated that, organizations which closely align their culture to support business strategies perform better. This is so because the level of employee motivation is proportional to their performance as Abuhamdeh & Csikszentmihalyi (2009) explains it. This is evident from the fact that, supervisor’s interference in self-managed groups leads to hindrance of effectiveness, according to Abuhamdeh & Csikszentmihalyi (2009). To overcome this managerial problem on employee motivation, Herzberg’s two-factor theory should be adopted by social organizations in dealing with issues of employee’s motivation Adams, Et al, (2001).
Theoretical framework of motivation assessment and measurement
Various theories have been developed by several scholars, in which the issue of employee motivation is well expounded. In this case, the various views and stands for various individuals are brought out in which the standards of any organization lie entirely on the level of motivation of its employees. Various organizations have found themselves not in a position to coordinate their internal activities, which has generally been attributed to the lack of motivation within such organizations.
According to Cohan (2002), employees should be motivated by being given good packages.
Several models of overcoming employee motivation have been established; whereby Hertzberg’s two-factor theory best fits the current situation in many social organizations. Though many people have the attitude that this model is not effective in solving employee motivational problem in business today, this perception is wrong. In respect to this model, many people were indifferent on whether the same factors of motivating workers in business sector will be equally effective in other fields. It was also noted that, many individuals doubted the efficiency and effectiveness of the model with some having the opinion that it was incorrect according to Boardman, Et al. (2010).
For instance, the ERG theory by Clayton Alderfer which was developed based on Maslow’s theory is a good model for solving motivational issues but doesn’t fit appropriately in social organizations. Alderfer proposed that progress up the ladder is more complicated and that a failure to meet advanced order need generates regression to an already satisfied lower level need. This model further suggests that, employees are motivated by recognition and involvement in decision making. This is an unrealistic and inappropriate in the sense that it will not adequately help to solve the problem on motivation. Thus the ERG theory will not efficiently help in solving the managerial crisis of employee motivation in social organizations (Adams, Et al, 2001).
Although Herzberg’s work is one of the old ideas in motivation of business and education workers it is constantly termed as irrelevant. In this aspect, it is true in that workers are greatly subjective to hygiene issues in the workplace. This argument excludes teachers and those in the education sector from the Herzberg’s two-factor theory (Adams, Et al 2001).
Nevertheless, this arguments and perceptions of people were proved to be misleading and unacceptable. On this basis, the fact that behaviors are different based on the two types of workers thus resulting to varied motivations. Importantly, the factor of money was outstanding among those in the education ring. According to , regarding the value of Herzberg’s hygiene and motivational aspects showed that, salary was the most vital of Herzberg’s hygiene issues. From the research, it was clear that salary was the most crucial source of motivation as compared to the other factors highlighted by Hertzberg (Svensson, 2007).
Despite many criticisms on Herzberg’s theory of motivation, the ideas are very relevant in the workplace in current times. On another perspective, the theory proves to be very relevant in that it focuses on the two issues, hygiene or dissatisfiers and motivation or satisfiers. From another perspective, employee motivation is brought about reduced dissatisfaction rather than improved hygiene. From a critical perspective it is evident that, improved acknowledgment, success, accountability, progress and the work itself can be a spring of motivation. A point worth of consideration is that, employee level of motivation has a significant impact on the performance (Mardjono, 2005). More so, various researches have shown that; employees transfer from one company to another not induced by money; but due to increase of Herzberg’s motivator factors (Kubo & Sak, 2002). The current increase of job seekers has also added the applicability of Herzberg’s theory; this is so because people are now looking for jobs with importance and that which supports self progress (Farrell, Et al, 2002).
On the contrary, a decentralized structure of responsibilities and authority may yield confusion in the process of setting up policies, organization, directing and recruitment according to Adams, Et al, (2001). Nevertheless, the outstanding policies on delegation of duties and chain of command should not be ignored in the decentralization process. From the case, it is well stipulated that, members of the same group should not delegate duties or responsibilities to their colleagues. In addition, the workers are not allowed to initiate new work procedures without the approval of the manager thus decreasing their morale and creativity (Samson, 2009).
Based on these facts, Herzberg’s two-factor theory finds its utility in solving the problem of motivation in social organizations. Though the working environment and people’s expectations are continuously changing, the Herzberg’s two-factor theory still finds its way in modern business. Nevertheless, the theory can be criticized for not clearly stating why people in education line of work are more motivated by money. Lack of incorporation of Herzberg’s hygiene issues in the workplace leads to negative attitude towards work and the urge to leave the work. With these facts, recommendation for adoption of this model will help to solve the problem (Cohan, 2002).
According to Adams (2001), workers in any social organization need to be motivated by being given good payment packages. In his theory of technical management, Taylor suggested that, workers in any social organization should be rewarded according to their specific roles and achievements. By so doing, the employees would be motivated to perform better to get the rewards promised. As () suggests, the lack motivation in employees of an organization would generally attribute to its overall poor performance. By so doing, social organizations would reap full benefits of employee motivation if the highlighted strategies from the Herzberg’s two-factor theory are considered; this will lead to their success of the organizations and retention of potential workforce According to Cohan (2002).
Perhaps, the managerial matters regarding employees’ wellbeing in an organization ought to be well addressed as Abuhamdeh & Csikszentmihalyi (2009) asserts. More specifically, the main concern of any corporate organization is to address the well thought-out matters affecting the achievement of its laid goals and objectives. Generally, an organization needs to evaluate its past performance to form a basis of action framework for the future as postulated by Boardman Et al, (2010). In this regard therefore, an information system organization ought to develop its plan of action in addressing the problems affecting its performance so as enhance its better performance in the future.
As revealed by Carson (2003), in addition to good pay of workers in social organizations, their social needs ought to be met as well. More precisely, employees in any social organization ought to be left to socialize and share views in various issues which would help them to perfect in one area or another. In his theory of human relations, Mayo postulated the need of coherence in all dealings in organizations where employees are provided with good payment packages in addition to their social needs well catered. By so doing the organization would be increasing efficiency in its production systems which in a way would result into the general increased level of production.
As it has been revealed by Cohan (2002), many failures in different organizations are closely related to the motivation level of the employees by the management. Loo (2001) suggested that, employees should be given full mandate in their work areas and be monitored the least so that they can develop positive attitude towards work and take it as if it’s theirs. If managers and employees encompass this tool in management, various employee problems currently witnessed would reduce as a result of employees feeling responsible of themselves which in a way motivates them.
Perhaps, Parr (1992) believes that, employees in various social organizations should be exposed to pressure free working environment, in which they should be made responsible of their own. More specifically, employers should not follow workers now and then as well as harassing them; which would in turn enhance coherence and harmony in the organization. This is because, according to Cohan (2002), when human beings are made responsible of their own, their attitude towards the task given is usually positive and their level of motivation high. As it has been revealed, the failure of the employees in many social organizations to devote in various activities can be linked to their lack of motivation. As revealed by various researches, the lack of good payments for employees in the company was the main cause of unwillingness of employees in carrying out their various activities. Perhaps, Parr (1992) argues that, lack of motivation in social organizations’ employees can adversely affect the general performance of the of such information system organizations.
According to Abuhamdeh & Csikszentmihalyi (2009) social organizations ought to portray social values to its fraternity to enhance co-existence which would in turn result into improvement of such organizations in terms of its performance. Abuhamdeh & Csikszentmihalyi (2009) links an organization’s level of performance to the welfare of its employees; who are the ultimate determinants of the performance such an organization. Certainly, ethical considerations ought to be made by employers on their dealings with their employees. As Adams (2001) puts it, when employees are treated with humanitarianism would feel that they are respected and be motivated in carrying out their various activities. The employees’ ability to develop positive attitude towards work would be attributed by their being accorded with high esteem by their employers.
Psychometric assessment tools
According to Abuhamdeh & Csikszentmihalyi (2009) managers in social organizations ought to use multivariate methods in assessing the level of motivation among the employees; so as take corrective measures in reinstating motivation among the employees. On this regard therefore, a close control over statistical methodology should be initiated to determine the degree of motivation among the employees. More specifically, work preference inventory should be established to enable employees feel being part of the organization which further enhances their efficiency in their various activities. More precisely, the management should develop reward program for employees who perform well, in which they would be encouraged to put more efforts in their duties. By providing a predicted classification and performance, managers should ensure a work program in social organizations which allows for employees assessment in which a subsequent rewarding through promotion is developed.
According to Adams, Et al, (2001), perhaps, the use of multiple regressions and factor scrutiny techniques should be devised in social organizations to enhance the control of pattern options by employees in pursuit of developing a suitable working environment for the employees. On this regard therefore, managers in various social organizations are left with the task of establishing the basic assessment tools for the performance of their employees. Generally, the consideration of both intrinsic and extrinsic factors in the organization on matters concerning employees’ motivation is actually of great importance to determine the sustainability of such organizations both in the short-run and in the long-run.
Validity and reliability issues
To assess the reliability of various techniques involved in employees’ motivation, various reliability computations are made to choose the method which has the highest level of reliability as postulated by Abuhamdeh & Csikszentmihalyi (2009). In this case, various reliabilities like inter-rater reliability and internal consistency ought to be conducted to determine how reliable a certain motivation technique is, within the organization. Further, split model reliability for factor structure should be determined from a basic sample to establish the relationship among various techniques used.
On the other hand, the validity of the techniques should be determined to establish their applicability in the concerned social organizations. In this case, the validity of the techniques should be based on the test-retest mode, where the mangers apply the technique on various samples of employees in different working environments to compare the outcomes of such a technique. Further, the techniques may be repeated from time to time in which a critical comparison on the outcomes should be made. Perhaps, the results got provide a credential on whether to adopt a certain technique or not, where the technique with smallest test re-tests ratio would be employed (Boardman, Et al., 2010).
It is of great importance to note that, the management strategies in employee motivation in social organizations is of great significance, as their ignorance leads to the organizations facing a severe employees loss and a significant profits decline. On this basis therefore, social organizations need to address the issue of employees’ motivation by creating a favorable working environment. This will help keep the employees motivated and therefore increase their productivity as well as avoiding their departure from the organizations.
In addition, proper communication is very essential since it will help in the realization of the set targets. This is possible since the management and their juniors will be aiming at the achievement of a common goal. The Herzberg’s two-factor theory should be adopted in social organizations; to ensure employees are fully motivated. In conclusion, the adoption of the recommendations is inevitable to social organizations due to the current overwhelming crisis in the skilled labor market leading to many distressing consequences in the organizations.
Generally, any social organization has to play a very significant role of motivating its employees by employing democracy of expressing their views in all concerned aspects. It is very important to note that, democracy is always accompanied by free will to do something in which; when employees are given democracy in expressing their views, the same motto would be inculcated in work where they would feel encouraged in carrying out their activities. Perhaps, it is of great importance for any social organization to note the importance of employee motivation which in turn results into better position of the organization in terms of its performance. Perhaps, it leaves employers and managers of social organizations with the role of considering the employee welfare as part of its key pillars for its prosperity which would in turn result into its better performance.
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