Employee Training on Social Perception and Culture


The aspect of organization behaviour as part of the human management process is very dynamic and ideal in an organization that offers proactive training to employees to understand the social perception as part of the symbolic elements of organization culture. Several literatures suggest that training on social perception might be the password to effective performance and internalisation of organization culture. Thus, this literature review paper will explore the argument that not every employee should be trained to understand social perception as this would be a waste of resources for some employees. Specifically, the paper explores past peer reviewed journals on employee training on social perception and its impact or organization behaviour and performance orientation.

Literature Review

Continuous and relevant training to all employees is significant towards effective performance and acceptance of a specific organization culture. Training strategies are significant towards integrating employee motivation and positive business environment, which guarantee sustainable operations. Besides, proactive training is necessary towards ensuring that employee perform at optimal level to ensure that different motivation strategies are sustainable Irrespective of the size of an organization, selective and effective training of all employees might create the ideal work environment characterized by committed and motivated employees driven by the desire to perform within the expectation of organization goals.

For instance, in the article, “The value of human resource management for organizational performance”, Liu et al. (2007) reviews the significance of comprehensive and inclusive organizational training on level of employees performance. Through primary research, Liu et al. (2007) established that the primary positive influencers of effective organization behaviour are aligned to ability to motivate, empower, and train all employees.

As observed by Liu et al. (2007), the above factors should be balanced and integrated in the organizational cultural orientation as a strategy for fostering proactive and positive perception towards an organization by the employees. Apparently, the research journal by Liu et al. (2007) highlights the importance of employee training towards creating a positive perception that can create a proactive organization behaviour orientation. Therefore, for an organization to be effective, in terms of employee performance and motivation, there is need to commit resources in the form of organizational behaviour training to reinforce the ideal organization culture among all employees as a prerequisite for sustainable performance modelling.

Carson (2006) in the article, “Saying it like it isn’t: The pros and cons of 360-degree feedback”, examined the significance of a strategic employee performance feedback process and how organization behaviour influences the feedback. Carson established that feedback management system has an impact on the negative and positive perception among the employees, irrespective of their position or function in an organization. Carson (2006) noted that the ability to balance the negative and positive perception lies in the ability of an organization to organize its employee training programs to be more inclusive and culturally oriented.

Being an expert in human resource functioning, Carson (2006) also established that there is need for the organization of the human resource management in a company to adopt the strategy of promoting positive organizational behaviour as part of the training initiatives. This approach is likely to boost confidentiality and trust to create a dynamic and self reliant workforce at different levels of organization performance. The findings by Carson (2006) are relevant in identifying the role of organization training in development of an ideal organizational behaviour model as part of the research objective.

In a rejoinder, Martinko et al. (2013) in the article, “A Review of Abusive Supervision Research”, established that balancing social perception of the employees is vital in the performance management within an organization. For instance, Martinko et al. (2013) noted that through proactive organizational training, it is easy to evaluate and review different performance indicators that are influenced by employee orientation, which determines the position of organizational cultural functionality. This means that any training feedback program in an organization should function on the premise of boosting employee morale and building strong confidence levels. The findings in the article will be used to develop the strategy for sustaining better training approaches.

In order to establish the impacts on training on employee motivation, Nohria, Groysberg, and Lee (2008) in the article, “Employee Motivation: A Powerful New Model”, found out that motivational channels through proactive organizational training might facilitate positive employee attitude engagement. This means that any training program in an organization should be aligned to existing organization behaviour platforms such as “motivation to acquire, bond, comprehend, and defend” (Nohria, Groysberg, & Lee, 2008, p. 39).

This means that any organization system that modifies behaviour among employees should be structured to appeal to everyone. When the system is properly functional, it is possible to create an environment where employees are empowered to internalise the trait of self consciousness in service delivery and defending the cultural foundation of an organization. Therefore, there is need for inclusive organizational training on social perception for employees to function optimally. This article highlights the significance of organizational behaviour modification through inclusive training programs on social perception.

Organizational training on social perception is analysed by Hendry et al. (2009) in the article, “Performance and rewards: cleaning out the stables”, as influencing positive outcomes that can deter employee redundancy. As established by Hendry et al. (2009), the use of proper competency system in an organization is perfectly comparative to performance of an organization. From this finding, it is apparent that adoption of policies on inclusive employee training programs on social perception should become the foundation pillar that supports the performance initiatives. In order to make the pillar firm, there is need for proper training alignment to the scope and performance.

When properly adopted, Hendry et al. (2009) concludes that organizations will gain from better social culture. This article presents factors that might influence positive performance outcomes in organizations that have non-selective training programs for all employees.

According to Bloom and Reenen (2010) in the article, “Why do Management Practices Differ across Firms and Countries,” effort-performance (E-P) expectancy is critical in apprehending different perception held by individuals that are related to the level of performance in a work environment. For instance, an experienced management in a multi-cultural organization may inspire optimal performance of the employees if he or she applies training strategies on social perception.

On the other hand, an inexperienced and unethical manager may inspire fear and poor morale in organization, leading to sluggish performance level among employees, when the training programs are applied selectively. Therefore, better performance in terms of decision making is expected from organizations that have inclusive training programs than a less experienced counterpart, irrespective of the environment where training skills are applied (Bloom & Reenen, 2010). In relation to the research, this article highlights the positive results of putting effort to have inclusive training programs for all employees in line with the research objective.

Harrison & Wicks (2013) in the article, “New Ways of Measuring Company Performance,” note that, “what valence a certain object or activity and partly upon the needs is the state of the person at that time” (p. 657). Apparently, for this argument to hold, it means that employees who are subjected to inclusive training in their work place have higher valence as compared to their counterparts who are subjected to selective training on understanding.

This means that the level of employee motivation in an organization may be related to the training and position held by each employee, that is, subordinates at the base of the functionality pyramid may exhibit low levels of motivation in performance as compared to the employees who are at the top of the hierarchal ladder. Therefore, to create an ideal environment for optimal motivation, there is need to roll out programs that are holistic, friendly, and soft to employee valence. Besides, the work environment should integrate healthy and sustainable ethical decision culture to create an ideal behaviour modelling and social control structure for organization leadership sustainability.

According to Wimbush (2006) in the article, “Spotlight on Human Resource Management”, series of desirable attributes of employee training are instrumental towards controlling behaviour and perception of employees towards the leadership decisions made by an individual in a higher rank. In most cases, these attributes are internalised in the management plans, different performance tests, and policies that address the efficiency and productivity of employees in an organization.

Therefore, for a leader in a management position to guarantee balance between the lower and higher valence, there is need to integrate inclusive employee training. The ability to balance these dynamics has the potential of creating an ideal work environment where employees are accommodative of different policies and flexible to embrace changes without affecting their performance (Wimbush, 2006). This article introduces an interesting angle in the topic of discussion by shifting the focus of application of the training activities on social perception as a leadership policy.

Different types of training approaches serve different functions in organizations, depending on the business environment, purpose, and management strategy as directed towards employees. Escrig-Tena et al. (2011) in the article, “Modelling the Implications of Quality Management Elements on Strategic Flexibility”, the author observed that efficient style of social perception training is characterised by healthy work environment, integration of different functions of the management, and high level of employee motivation to perform optimally.

The authors observed that application of inclusive training strategies in an organization is related to the level of employee motivation and general performance since different training policies applied in any organization trickles down to the functionality of employees. This means that organizations with effective managers attend to have higher rate of employee motivation since the leadership practices in such organizations promote learning and continuous skill development.

Actions adopted by effective managers are critical in encouraging and inspiring maximum level of employee performance. This article introduces the aspects of proactive training approaches in order to understand how they are applied in different organizational set-ups.

According to Jian et al. (2012) in the article, “Abusive supervision and frontline employees’ service performance”, lack of a proactive approach to employee relationship building through training initiatives might results in ineffective performance. Basically, limited space for proactive employee engagement might compromise loyalty to the existing organizational behaviour model and create laxity towards following a definite organizational culture.

On the other hand, Rosso, Dekas, and Wrzesniewski (2010) in the article, “On the meaning of work: A theoretical integration and review,” discusses the need for integrating organizational goals to different performance modules as part of the organization culture to guarantee sustainable employee-employer relationship. These articles highlight the impacts of ineffective approach towards implementing strategic and inclusive training program on organizational behaviour. These articles are relevant in understanding the aspect of exclusivity or its absence on employee performance.

My view opinion

In summary, the literature review suggests that there is a strong relationship between inclusive employee training styles and performance in an organization. Specifically, it was established that different training styles have different level of impact on performance effectiveness among employees. Besides, the literature review suggested that efficiency in different service-based training programs have improved over the years due to implementation of different performance improvement strategies that create a healthy work environment. From a theoretical perspective, organizational ineffectiveness is motivated by lack of inclusive training programs.

This means that an organization with selective training programs on social perceptions only creates distracting stone walls to its own disadvantage. As established in the literature review findings, I disagree with the statement that not every employee should be trained to understand social perception as this would be a waste of resources for some employees. Selective training of employees on social perception might result in occurrence of ineffective organization behaviour orientation. Inclusive training of all employees on social perception is not a waste of resources but an empowerment for better performance.


Carson, M. (2006). Saying it like it isn’t: The pros and cons of 360-degree feedback. Business Horizons, 49(3), 395-402.

Escrig-Tena, A., Bou-Llusar, C., Beltran, M., & Roca-Puig, V. (2011). Modelling the implications of quality management elements on strategic flexibility. Advances in Decision Sciences, 1(1), 1-27.

Harrison, J., & Wicks, A. (2013). New ways of measuring company performance. Journal of Economic Behaviour & Organization, 61(4), 653-667.

Hendry, C., Woodward, S., & Bradley, P. (2009). Performance and rewards: cleaning out the stables. Human Resource Management Journal, 10(3), 46-62.

Jian, Z., Kwan, H., Qiu, Q., Liu, Z., & Yim, F. (2012). Abusive supervision and frontline employees’ service performance. Service Industries Journal, 32(8), 683-698.

Liu, Y., Combs, J., Ketchen, D., & Ireland, D. (2007). The value of human resource management for organizational performance. Business Horizons, 50(5), 503-511.

Martinko, M. J., Harvey, P., Brees, J. R., & Mackey, J. (2013). A review of abusive supervision research. Journal of Organizational Behaviour, 34(5), 120-137.

Nohria, N., Groysberg, B., & Lee, L. (2008). Employee motivation: A powerful new model. Harvard Business Review, 7(7), 34-41.

Rosso, B.D., Dekas, K.H., & Wrzesniewski, A. (2010). On the meaning of work: A theoretical integration and review. Research in Organizational Behaviour, 30(5), 91-127.

Wimbush, J. (2006). Spotlight on human resource management. Business Horizons, 49(6), 433−436.