They try to explain the behaviors of employees in the workplace. Motivation theories give the reasons for different actions that are taken by people. They explain rational motives for employees to repeat or avoid certain behaviors.
Hertzberg’s Two-Factor Theory
It is also referred to as motivation-hygiene or dual-factor theory. It uses motivators and hygiene factors to describe different ways that are used by organizations to motivate their employees. Motivator factors create satisfaction, and they inspire workers to put extra effort into their work. They include recognition and career progression. Motivators increase satisfaction and motivation levels of employees, but their absence does not imply that employees will be dissatisfied. Hygiene factors include courses of actions, one’s earnings, and relationships at work. Their absence causes an increase in the level of dissatisfaction, but their presence does not increase motivation and satisfaction (Ramlall 53).
Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs
It supports that the necessary needs for people have to be achieved before they are motivated to accomplish others at high levels. The theory supports that employers should prove to their employees that they value their roles. As a result, workers will feel that they are being respected and will they will be motivated to put a lot of effort into their jobs. It argues that organizations should support their employees to achieve other goals that are outside work by creating flexible working hours and paying them fairly (Rani and Lenka 4).
The theory suggests that employees are motivated to work harder when they are responding to the attention that they are exposed to by their employers. Workers hence put a lot of effort into their roles if they are being observed (Ramlall 55). The observation could be by offering regular feedback.
It suggests that “individuals choose ways of behaving depending on the outcomes they are expecting as a result of their behaviors” (Dever 418). People decide on actions to take based on expectations. For instance, employees might work for many hours because they could be expecting rewards like an opportunity for progression, bonuses, a pay rise, and praises such as an employee of the month.
Three-Dimensional Theory of Attribution
It explains “ways individuals attach meaning to their and other people’s behaviors” (Rani and Lenka 4). According to the theory, reasons attributed to their behavior can have an impact on the degree of their future motivation.
Employees Motivation at Dana Gas Company
It is an independent company, and it is headquartered in Sharjah, UAE. It was established in the year 2005 and listed on the Abu Dhabi Securities Exchange (ADX). The value statements of the company have indicated its desire to motivate employees and to ensure that it maintains high levels of production. Employees need to be recognized to develop a feeling that their employers care about their personal lives outside their work (Dever 425). The company has developed a value statement that states its core goal in ensuring that employees are working in a healthy, safe, and environmentally friendly workplace. It also indicates that the company respects and embraces diversity. Its aim is to avoid the adverse effects of dissatisfactions and low motivations at the workplace. Dana Gas values its workers and believes that they bring innovative and unique ideas to the company. The Success of companies significantly depends on the passions of employees. The company offers training, workshops, and education programs to ensure that employees are motivated by their career growth. Employees are fairly remunerated since it believes that people are the primary source of wealth to the company (Dever 428).
Dever, Bridget V. “Using the Expectancy-Value Theory of Motivation to Predict Behavioral and Emotional Risk among High School Students.” School Psychology Review 45.4 (2016): 417-433.
Ramlall, Sunil. “A Review of Employee Motivation Theories and Their Implications for Employee Retention within Organizations.” Journal of American Academy of Business 5.1/2 (2004): 52-63.
Rani, Rekha and Sameer Kumar Lenka. “Motivation and Work Motivation: Concepts, Theories & Researches”. International Journal of Research in IT & Management 2.8 (2012): 4–6.