Improving the Organization and Management of Extension

Impact of management on business

Management is defined as the way of organizing and coordinating of business activities so as to achieve specific organizational objectives (Waldron, Vsanthakumar, & Arulraj, 1997). It is one of the factors of production that drives the business to success. Management impacts on a business through the fundamental functions, as noted below.

Planning: Management uses this tool to determine the future course of actions in the business. It fills the gap between where the business is currently and where it wants to be.

Organizing: Management uses this function to mobilize resources (human, capital and physical) to achieve desired goals of an organization. This is realized through creating a productive relationship between personnel, raw materials, capital and tools.

Staffing: According to Koontz and O’Donell (1992), staffing is where management decides on the proper and effective selection procedures, appraising and developing the human resources of the organization to play the desired roles.

Directing: To succeed in business, management exercises this function through supervising, motivating, providing leadership and offering better communication channels to subordinates with the main aim of achieving the organizational goals.

Controlling: Management ensures that the objectives and goals of the organization are achieved by continuously checking the progress made. Any deviations are noted, and corrective measures are applied to ensure the organization is on the right track.

Elements of success in a business

For business to succeed, there are certain essential elements that need to be observed:

  • Attitude. This encompasses the approach, the psychology and how one is motivated. They all play an important role in deciding the progress of the business.
  • Business goals. Once a company has the right mindset and motivation, then setting business goals will give the direction to organization. Setting wrong goals will lead to wastage of energy and resources and hence business failure.
  • Strategy. Having your goals set, you need to create a strategy for the business. This will give the direction to the business for a long term to make sure the consistency and sustainability are implemented.
  • Skills. Successful businesses have the right people with the right skills.
  • The business environment. This a common factor for success or failure of a business. Having the right environment accords a better chance to create a good attitude and enables a business to stay on track with its goals and strategies.
  • The market. Market is critical because it is an element that sustains the business. Any business is to figure out what the market for their products or services will be. The management of the business should establish ‘what the product/service will be’, ‘why the customers would buy the product/service’, and ‘how much they would pay for it’.
  • Finance. A company needs to hire the right people with the right skills to cover expenses of running the business, e.g., paying rent, telephone, furniture, supplies and internet. Capital (finance) is required in all these cases to make sure the business is growing.

Changes in business

Technological changes

Technological changes have revolutionized how businesses conduct their operations. The use of computers, websites, servers and personal digital products has created competitive advantage (Agrawal, 1995). Businesses should consider implementing technology in their planning processes to allow using the best available technologies (Agrawal, 1995).

Society changes

Changes in business may occur due to changes in demographics, behavior patterns, tastes and lifestyle of the customers. Understanding the social changes that are taking place gives business a better feel of the market situations in the future.

Environmental changes

Environmental changes are the factors beyond the business’ control and have a direct influence on day-to-day running of the business operations. These include government policies, customers, creditors, socio-cultural organizations and the politics of the state.

Competition changes

Competition changes occur due to several factors, such as entry of new players in the same market, changes in product quality of the rivals and in prices of rival production. These changes have a significant impact on the business as the owners have to find the most efficient and advantageous ways of staying in the competition.

Diversity changes

Such changes occur when the workforce changes in terms of race, gender, culture and national status of the employees.

References

Agrawal, R.D. (1995). Organization and Management. New Delhi: Tata McGraw Hill.

Koontz, H., & O’Donnel, W. (1992). Essentials of Management. New Delhi, Tata McGraw Hill.

Waldron, M. W., Vsanthakumar, J. & Arulraj, S. (1997). Improving the organization and management of extension. In B. E. Swanson, R. P. Bentz & A. J. Sofranko Improving agricultural extension. A reference manual. Rome: Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations. Web.