Job analysis or work analysis involves a process that is used to identify and verify details of a given job roles and needs and the relative significance of these roles. Thus, it entails judgments about and contents of a job. It is imperative to recognize that job analysis focuses on the job and not the person. An incumbent may respond to the analysis by providing information collected through questionnaires or interviews. Data collected is used to highlight job specifications and descriptions, but not the specification of the person doing the job.
The primary aim of conducting job analysis is to determine and record ‘job relatedness’ of job elements, including training, recruitment, selection, reward and performance appraisal and assist in identifying factors that may improve employee job satisfaction and motivation (Suthar, Chakravarthib and Pradhan 166).
Constituents of formal job analysis process (how job analysis is performed)
Performing a job analysis involves taking into account several factors. These factors depict how job analysis can be done in practice. Choices are made, methods are selected and sources of job analysis data are determined. Finally, purpose of job analysis is also a critical element of the process.
Generally, choices are made based on the required job descriptors. Descriptors refer to different aspects of job examined during a job analysis process. In this regard, three types of job descriptors have been identified for job analysis purposes. The first descriptor involves the requirements of the job itself and activities done by employees. Two major aspects of job requirements are the specific tasks done and general work responsibilities. Tasks reflect a collection of a given work components, including actions involved and their outcomes when workers fulfill their job duties. Tasks are specific to a given job.
Job responsibilities depict a collection of different related tasks that form a set of generic behavior noted across a wide range of job roles. As such, job responsibilities are broad activities made of many related roles applied to accomplish a job goal.
Work requirement is also a part of descriptor used in job analysis. The requirements are diverse and may include specific worker characteristic necessary to accomplish a given job successfully. Worker knowledge, ability, skills and other soft characteristics are often discussed as work requirement during job analysis processes. Knowledge of workers is defined as discrete facts and information obtained from different sources for a given job. Skill is the level of proficiency that workers demonstrate when they perform a job. Skills can enhance knowledge acquisition and foster learning among workers. Besides, they can also assist in enhancing training and experiences on a given role. Worker abilities consist of enduring basic capacities to do a wide range of activities. Worker abilities are reflected cognitive elements such as verbal or quantitative; psychomotor; physical; and sensory abilities. Abilities “develop and become stable over time” (Morgeson and Dierdorff 5).
Other characteristics that may be relevant for effective job performance are also considered during job analysis. For instance, personality and motivational factors reflect issues related to leadership, certification and experience among others also influence job performance.
Finally, the job context is also considered under choices to be made. Job context reflects the context within which the work is done. They account for situational opportunities and constraints that affect work in an organization. Social, physical, and task some aspects of work context that should be considered during job analysis. It is however noted many job analyses fail to account for job contexts, but recent studies have shown that they have critical impacts on job role requirements (Morgeson and Dierdorff 3-41).
Method for data collection is required for job analysis process. Many different methods are available, including observation, group discussions, questionnaires, and individual interviews. Once data are collected from the target employees, an appropriate rating scale is required to reflect job analysis scores.
Finally, job analysis also involves determining the source of data for collection. Diverse sources of data exist, including employee records, technical opinions, job analysts, incumbent job descriptions and supervisors.
Methods of recruitment
Recruiting the best talents has never been more vital for organization. Fierce competition, changes in the labor market, economic uncertainty and high costs “imply that organization must recruit the right employees for their success” (Oracle Corporation 2). Thus, only best recruitment methods should be used.
First, organizations can use internal sourcing to recruit employees to fill vacant positions. In this case, existing employees have opportunities to new or recently vacated job opportunities in organizations. Many organizations tend to use internal sourcing as a means of recruiting and promoting employees. This method is effective because minimal training and orientation are required. At the same time, it reduces costs associated with job advertisement and conducting background checks.
Second, organizations may also turn to external sourcing for new employees. Employers typically rely on external recruitment tools, including newspaper advertisement, job listing boards and other publications. External sourcing attracts candidates with varied characteristics. Such candidates tend to come with fresh perspectives to an organization. This method is also applicable when existing employees may not be able to fill the vacancy because of expertise or specialty of roles. Employers must know the appropriate candidate for the job before position advertisement.
Third, some employers use third party sourcing that involves job placement bureaus or headhunters to get the most qualified candidate for a given position. Recruiters use various methods and tools to get the best candidates for the job. They may define compensation and benefits of the job, for instance.
Finally, technologies and social media have brought about changes that have impacted recruiting practices. Smart devices and the Internet have made information available to larger audience at anywhere and anytime. Smartphones, for instance, can be used to browse millions of jobs and virtually any job-related Web sites. These gadgets provide opportunities for instant access to newly advertised positions. At the same time, social media, such as LinkedIn, Facebook and Twitter have been found to be effective recruitment tools because more young professionals use them each day. Consequently, firms that have robust IT systems have turned to social media for recruitment. People tend to display their profiles, including job related achievements on LinkedIn. Employers now leverage these tools to find the best talents for vacant positions.
Most recently, recruiting firms are now mining data regarding job applicants to develop the best models for employee recruitment and selection. This is smart sourcing (Oracle Corporation 2). It is expected that the introduction of data analytics into human resource selection and recruitment would change practices. For instance, “in employee recruiting, big data allows employers to screen more accurately” (Morrison and Rupert 17) and select the best candidates for the job. It has also been noted that data analytics is now widely being implemented to “recruit workforce and manage employees’ performance is becoming an established business practice” (Esposti 216).
Most effective methods
The use of smart sourcing promises organizations to recruit the best candidates. In fact, it is noted that various organizations can leverage smart sourcing technologies to get the same talent just like other larger organizations. The recruitment tends to be faster, and candidates are sourced from a larger network of mainly qualified applicants. At the same time, organizations save costs associated with longer periods of sourcing the right candidates.
Third party sourcing is also effective for recruiting new employees that can bring fresh perspectives to an organization. Besides, the candidates are sourced from different databases and only the most qualified candidate is selected for a vacant position.
Specific selection method for the best candidates
Smarting sourcing is an effective recruitment method for the best candidate.
Smart sourcing provides some of the best practices in employee recruitment (Laurano 2-13). It reduces costs and time taken to hire new employees. The method provides predictive ranking and optimization capabilities of all applicants and, thus, only most qualified ones can be selected.
In addition, the recruitment process is automated for enhanced applicant quality, efficiency in hiring and improved productivity, as well as strategic advantage derived from best talents.
Smart sourcing is technology-driven. Not many organizations possess the right tools and data analytics capabilities to use such emerging technologies.
The method is relatively new and, therefore, less tech savvy organizations may not benefit from it. Besides, the costs involved in technology and skill acquisitions could be enormous.
Esposti, Sara Degli. “When big data meets dataveillance: The hidden side of analytics.” Surveillance & Society 12.2 (2014): 209-225. Print.
Laurano, Madeline. Sourcing Gets Smart: Revamping Strategies, Rethinking Technology. 2012. Web.
Morgeson, Frederick P. and Erich C. Dierdorff. Work analysis: From technique to theory. Washington, DC: APA, 2011. Print.
Morrison, Giles and Slinger Rupert. “Will Organization Design be Affected by Big Data?” Journal of Organization Design 3.3 (2014): 17-26. Web.
Oracle Corporation. Best Practices for Recruiting the Best Talent. 2013. Web.
Suthar, B.K., T. Latha Chakravarthib and Shamyal Pradhan. “Impacts of Job Analysis on Organizational Performance: An Inquiry on Indian Public Sector Enterprises.” Procedia Economics and Finance 11 (2014): 166–181. Web.