Qatari Policy on Employee Retention: Questionnaire

Introduction

The properly selected instrument to collect the data for the study is often discussed by researchers as a guarantee for receiving credible and efficient findings that are supported with relevant conclusions (Gkorezis & Petridou 2012, p. 3602; Kuttappa 2013, p. 75). While conducting the quantitative survey and focusing on examining how human resource management (HRM) practices and policies can influence the employees’ job satisfaction and retention in the public sector, it is important to utilize the research instrument that is effective to reflect individuals’ perception and attitudes and be used for formulating general conclusions (Edgar & Geare 2005 p. 535; Marescaux, De Winne & Sels 2013, p. 6; Tabiu & Nura 2013, p. 247). The aim of this review of the literature is to discuss the appropriateness of using the questionnaire based on the Likert scale in order to collect the data regarding the employees’ perception of the effectiveness of such HRM practices as training and development, rewards and promotion, and performance management for influencing retention. The reason for using the Likert scale and the specific questionnaire design are discussed separately.

The Questionnaire’s Design

The Likert-scale-based questionnaire is selected as the main instrument in order to collect the primary data in the research, and the reason is that a questionnaire is useful to examine the employees’ experience (Tsai, Edwards & Sengupta 2010, p. 7). A questionnaire is a tool that is usually used by researchers to study attitudes in the field of HRM (Giauque, Anderfuhren-Biget & Varone 2013, p. 133; Hong et al. 2012, p. 68; Rahman et al. 2013, p. 63). Thus, Tangthong stresses the necessity of using a questionnaire in order to explore the employees’ attitudes regarding compensation, rewards, training, and development (Tangthong 2014, p. 13). In addition, Abdullah, Ahsan, and Alam use the personal survey questionnaire in order to examine the correlation between the employees’ performance, attitude, commitment and such HRM practices as “training and development, teamwork, compensation/incentives, HR planning, performance appraisal, and employee security” (Abdullah, Ahsan, & Alam 2009, p. 67). The aspects of the employees’ attitudes are measured with the help of the 5-point Likert scale (Abdullah, Ahsan, & Alam 2009, p. 67). Furthermore, according to Hong and the group of researchers, it is important to choose the survey based on the use of a questionnaire because of “the direct response and feedback from the respondents that can be collected in a short period of time and in an easier manner” (Hong et al. 2012, p. 68). From this point, the use of a questionnaire in surveys is one of the most traditional approaches to conducting studies in HRM.

Parts of the Likert-scale Based Questionnaire

The Likert-scale-based questionnaire designed for conducting the current study is intended to measure the employees’ perception and attitudes regarding such areas as performance management in the public sector and semi-private sector organizations, visions regarding the rewards and promotion, attitudes toward training, and development, and employees’ job satisfaction and retention. In order to be able to analyze the collected information appropriately, the questionnaire is divided into five parts where statements are organized according to the area of the survey (Balatbat 2010, p. 18; Dar et al. 2014, p. 231; Sarker & Afroze 2014, p. 185). This design of the questionnaire is similar to that one proposed by Hong et al. (2012, p. 68) in their study. Thus, the researchers determined the factors important for studying and designing the Likert scale appropriate for determining statistically significant relationships (Hong et al. 2012, p. 68). In their study, Shulruf, Hattie, and Dixon (2008, p. 60) also used questionnaires developed to determine individuals’ attitudes. Following ALDamoe, Yazam, and Bin Ahmid, it is possible to note that the division of the questionnaire in parts is also important to conduct the careful analysis of the data (ALDamoe, Yazam & Bin Ahmid 2011, p. 82).

The questionnaire is efficient when it also provides the information to test such control variables as socio-demographic information concerning respondents. According to Giauque, Anderfuhren-Biget, and Varone, control variables should include gender, age, and education level among others to state how the status of the respondent can influence the perception of HRM (Giauque, Anderfuhren-Biget & Varone 2013, p. 135). The research conducted by Balatbat demonstrates that there is a direct relationship between the perception of HRM practices and demographic information associated with respondents (Balatbat 2010, p. 47). Thus, the final part of the used questionnaire asks respondents about their demographic information to test control variables and provide a credible analysis of the data taking into account factors that can influence the respondents’ opinions and perceptions (Dar et al. 2014, p. 232; Gkorezis & Petridou 2012, p. 3602). According to Marescaux, De Winne, and Sels, the focus on control variables is important to prevent the explanation of the observed relationships with the focus on these variables (Marescaux, De Winne & Sels 2013, p. 13).

The Data for the Questionnaire

In order to design an effective questionnaire for collecting the required data, researchers propose not only to separate parts of the questionnaire for the ease of a respondent and collector but also to select questions and options from the previously developed questionnaires to address the topic of the current research (Balatbat 2010, p. 18; Sarker & Afroze 2014, p. 185). In their research, Rasouli et al. (2013, p. 1149) prove the effectiveness of combining several approaches to designing a questionnaire while using several questionnaires previously completed by other researchers. This approach allows designing a unique questionnaire that responds to the needs of the study and produces results that are intended and expected by the researchers (Majumder 2012, p. 54; Singh et al. 2012, p. 661; Wang & Hwang 2012, p. 328).

In their turn, Dhiman and Mohanty also suggest the use of properly structured questionnaires for conducting researches in human resource management (Dhiman & Mohanty 2010, p. 75). In this context, the most effective and easiest way to design a questionnaire is to use the Likert-scale based questionnaire that allows measuring the respondents’ answers directly and quickly (Abdullah, Ahsan, & Alam 2009, p. 67; Gill & Meyer 2011, p. 13; Rasouli et al. 2013, p. 1149; Tangthong 2014, p. 14). Therefore, the questionnaire developed for the current research utilizes the Likert scale for formatting and measuring the statements that are formulated by the researcher and adapted from the previously developed questionnaires.

Types of Statements

The other important factor to guarantee that the questionnaire is easy to use by respondents is the type of proposed questions and options. The questions and statements used in Likert scales are usually closed-ended. The researchers support the idea that this type of question does not limit the respondents, but provides them with an opportunity to give answers close to their attitudes (Al-Kahtani & Khan 2014, p. 345; Onyemah, Rouzies & Panagopoulos 2010, p. 1958; Slavic, Berber & Lekovic 2014, p. 50). Hong and researchers note that closed-ended questions can be discussed as structured, and it is appropriate to use them in the research because they can “ease the process of analyzing the data from respondents” (Hong et al. 2012, p. 68). The researchers agree that the use of close-ended questions, as in the proposed questionnaire, is appropriate to make the process of collecting the data quick and properly organized (Gkorezis & Petridou 2012, p. 3602; Katou 2013, p. 680; Sanders, Dorenbosch & De Reuver 2008, p. 415). Furthermore, the process of answering questions from the Likert-scale-based questionnaire is advantageous for respondents because they have the opportunity to save their time and resources.

Although questionnaires containing open-ended questions and statements are appropriate to provide such detailed qualitative data as opinions and perceptions, they are not efficient for use in quantitative surveys where it is necessary to focus on measuring the respondents’ answers in order to receive the statistically significant results (Ansari 2011, p. 134; Kahya 2009, p. 97; Rasouli et al. 2013, p. 1149). Therefore, the design of a questionnaire can be discussed as effective for the quantitative study when it is necessary to focus on the employees’ perceptions of different HRM practices and policies. The opportunity to collect the quantitative data regarding the employees’ attitude depends on the fact that Likert-scale-based questionnaires are traditionally standardized. As a result, the proposed questionnaire is friendly to respondents who need to choose their answers from the proposed variants.

Construct Measurements

Three HRM practices were selected for the study, and to measure their influence as independent variables on job satisfaction and employee retention as dependent variables, certain questionnaire items presented in the prior studies were examined according to the purpose of the current research. The items used in the developed questionnaire are adapted from the questionnaires previously developed and used by researchers who studied the correlation between HRM practices, commitment, and retention (Appendix A).

Performance Management

The statements used to measure the respondents’ perception of performance management are adapted from the researches by Yamamoto (2013, p. 754), Kyndt et al. (2009, p. 18), Al-Kahtani and Khan (2014), Den Hartog et al. (2013), and Dhiman and Mohanty (2010). There are four items taken from the questionnaire developed by Yamamoto (2013) and measured with the help of the Likert scale. Yamamoto focused on discussing the employees’ perception regarding performance management in relation to its role for further promotion (Yamamoto 2013, p. 754). In order to measure the supervisor support, the items were adapted from Kyndt et al. (2009) and Al-Kahtani and Khan (2014). These researchers focused on measuring the aspects of performance evaluation in the organization (Al-Kahtani & Khan 2014; Kyndt et al. 2009). Two additional items were taken from Dhiman and Mohanty (2010) in order to focus on the factors of objectivity and appropriateness of feedback in the organization (Appendix A).

Rewards and Promotion

The items to measure Rewards and Promotion systems in the organizations were designed with references to the items used by Yamamoto (2013) and Dhiman and Mohanty (2010) in their studies. The formulation of some items was changed according to the claims of researchers who specialized in studying the role of promotion for employee retention (Appendix A). Such factors as the appraisal approach and compensation system were accentuated in the adapted items. The researchers obtained the responses on Rewards and Promotion using the Likert scale, and this method was also adopted for the current research (Dhiman & Mohanty 2010; Yamamoto 2013).

Training and Development

The statements presented in the Training and Development section are primarily adapted from the questionnaire used by Ul-Ameeq and Hanif in their research (Ul-Ameeq & Hanif 2013). The researchers focused on studying the relationship between training provided for employees and their development and performance. The responses to items were measured according to the five-point Likert scale. Thus, the items provided are effectively adapted to the designed questionnaire (Ul-Ameeq & Hanif 2013, p. 81). In their research, Den Hartog et al. (2013) also assessed the employees’ perception of HRM practices regarding training and development in the organization, and it was possible to adapt three items regarding the skills and knowledge development (Appendix A). Two additional items measuring the time and effectiveness of the training and development sessions for employees were adapted from the questionnaire used by Yamamoto (2013) in his study.

Job Satisfaction

To find out the satisfaction of employees related to the aspects of their job, the questionnaire was mainly adopted from Yamamoto’s research (Yamamoto 2013, p. 756). Yamamoto paid much attention to measuring job satisfaction in his study, and the Likert-scale based items were adopted because of their effective formulation starting with “I am satisfied with…”, and the main factors accentuated by the author were income, career progress, and promotion (Yamamoto 2013, p. 756). The other approach to refer to job satisfaction was used by Jaros (2007) and Kyndt et al. (2009) who directly related job satisfaction with commitment, feeling the part of the organization, and job retention. The items from these researchers’ questionnaires were adapted to measure the possible relationship between job satisfaction and retention (Appendix A).

Employee Retention

The scale for measuring employee retention was adapted from the questionnaires used in the researches by Kyndt et al. (2009), Ibrahim and Al-Falasi (2014), and Jaros (2007). Kyndt and the group of researchers measured employee retention with a focus on the factors of motivation, stimulation, and empowerment. Thus, more than 10 items were adapted from the questionnaire and reformulated to address the needs of present research (Kyndt et al. 2009, p. 18). Such factors as loyalty, turnover intention and commitment were added to the questionnaire on employee retention with references to the items used in the research by Ibrahim and Al-Falasi (2014) and measured with the help of the five-point Likert scale. The factors of loyalty and turnover intention were also measured with references to the items taken from the questionnaire developed by Jaros in the study (Jaros 2007, p. 23). Six items referred to commitment were adapted to measure loyalty and the employees’ turnover intention as the parameter to demonstrate the overall level of employee retention in the organization (Appendix A).

The Relevance of Using the Likert Scale

The Likert scale is one of the most actively used instruments in social studies and management researches (Ensslin et al. 2013; Kehoe & Wright 2013, p. 376). This specific scale is named after Rensis Likert, the American educator, and psychologist, who developed the scale for measuring different qualitative phenomena (Murray 2013, p. 259). As a result, the Likert scale became actively used for measuring the qualitative information that is directly related to the attributes or attitudes of individuals. Thus, using the scale, researchers ask respondents to agree or disagree with the provided options or set of questions, and their answers demonstrate the level of agreement in the situation when a certain value was assigned to the options (Dittrich et al. 2007, p. 3; Murray 2013, p. 259). From this point, Dittrich and the group of researchers refer to the Likert scale as a “ubiquitous method of collecting attitudinal data” (Dittrich et al. 2007, p. 3). In addition, Ensslin et al. (2013, p. 741) support the effectiveness of using the Likert scale in the HRM studies while stating that the use of the scale in questionnaires is appropriate for managers to find aspects and gaps for further improvement in relation to the definite HRM policy or practice. From this point, the use of the Likert-scale-based questionnaire is suitable for studies in HRM when it is necessary to examine the individual intentions of respondents within a certain framework.

Advantages of Likert Scales

Easiness of developing the Likert-scale-based questionnaire is one of the main advantages of the method. Ensslin et al. (2013, p. 741) point out the fact that many researchers choose the use of the Likert scale because it is easy to construct the associated questionnaire and apply the scale to the conducted study. Thus, researchers in the managerial field can use both individually developed questionnaires and previously used scales (Den Hartog et al. 2013, p. 1646; Rehman 2012, p. 81). The items of the scale and the number of questions depend on the researcher’s needs, but the overall questionnaire remains to be standardized because respondents are expected to determine one option among the proposed ones (Abdullah, Ahsan, & Alam 2009; Den Hartog et al. 2013; Tangthong 2014). As a result, Hong et al. (2012, p. 68) accentuate the idea that the information collected with the help of this tool is more detailed than the information collected with the other quantitative methods, and these subjective data are easy to analyze and compare for the purpose of the research. Thus, the use of the 4-point Likert-scale-based questionnaire is an efficient choice for the current study.

Likert Scales in Quantitative Studies

While following Ensslin and the group of researchers, it is important to note that only the Likert scale “allows statistical operations, such as count, frequency, mode, and median” in the data analysis (Ensslin et al. 2013, p. 739). Thus, qualitative responses or opinions and perceptions provided by participants of the study can be interpreted and presented in measurements that are appropriate for the quantitative study (ALDamoe, Yazam & Bin Ahmid 2011, p. 82; Gill & Meyer 2011, p. 12). From this perspective, the possibility to measure the qualitative data as the quantitative information contributes to the credibility and accuracy of the findings in the current study.

Reliability and Validity

While referring to the issues of reliability and validity associated with using the Likert scale, it is important to state that the reliability of the scale is measured in Cronbach’s alpha coefficient, and many researchers note that questions and statements associated with such areas of HRM as training and development, rewards and promotion, and performance management are recommended to have the level of reliability that is higher than 0.70 (Abdullah, Ahsan, & Alam 2009, p. 67; Gill & Meyer 2011, p. 13; Rasouli et al. 2013, p. 1149; Tangthong 2014, p. 14). In this case, the reliability of the conducted study can be considered as high when Cronbach’s alpha is tested before the survey is started with such programs as SPSS v15; and the statements that are measured lower than 0.60 are replaced with the appropriate points and retested (Gill & Meyer 2011, p. 13). The possibility to check reliability is one more reason to state that the selected tool is appropriate for collecting the data in the study.

Conclusion

The review of the literature on HRM studies and surveys has allowed concluding about the suitability of using a standardized questionnaire based on the Likert scale in a quantitative study that aims to find the relationships between the employees’ vision of HRM practices, and retention. Thus, questionnaires can be discussed as the easiest way to gather information regarding the employees’ perceptions and attitudes. Furthermore, the use of the Likert scale allows interpreting the qualitative data received from the respondents with references to the measurable points. In addition, the number of questions and points used for the Likert-scale-based questionnaire can vary depending on the purpose of the research and determining objectives.

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Appendix A

Sources Sources Statements/Items Questionnaire statements
Yamamoto, Hiroshi; 2013; The relationship between employees’ perceptions of human resource management and their retention: from the viewpoint of attitudes toward job-specialties.
Individual job performance is thought very much as important in personnel appraisal. (Performance management – Job performance and personnel appraisal)
Individual job performance is thought very much as important in personnel appraisal.
Individual job performance is greatly reflected in the determination of a Salary. (Rewards and promotion – Compensation types)
There are performance-related pay methods in places such as basic pay increases, bonuses, or allowance.
According to individual job performance, fast promotion is expected. (Performance management – Job performance and promotion)
According to individual job performance, fast promotion is expected.
Employees get satisfactory feedback about the result of performance evaluation. (Performance management – Performance feedback)
I get satisfactory feedback about the result of the performance evaluation.
Personnel appraisal is designed so that fairness may be maintained. (Rewards and promotion – Appraisal fairness)
Personnel appraisal is designed so that fairness may be maintained.
The point of personnel appraisal is clarified in advance. Performance management – Performance evaluation clarity )
I have a clear understanding of how my performance is evaluated.
I think that the selection method of promotion is successful. (Rewards and promotion – Promotion career path)
I am well aware of my promotion career path in this organization.
The determination method of a salary and a bonus is very fair. (Rewards and promotion – Compensation fairness)
The determination method of a salary and bonus is fair.
A lot of time is assigned to employee education compared with the other companies. Training and development– Training program in place)
A lot of time is assigned to employee training in this organization.
The structure/program for talent cultivation is enhanced.
I have been well-trained by this company for my current job. Training and Development – Skills and knowledge development)
I have been well-trained by this organization for my current job.
The policy/principle of talent cultivation is clear.
In the current company/place of work, OJT is emphasized.
OJT by boss and seniors is conducted well.
It is premised on employees serving a long period of time continuously.
Long-term employment is secured.
This company has done all it can to avoid layoffs.
This company does a good job of placing competent people in an important positions.
This company accepts the change of a temporary service form by childrearing or care (short-time service, etc.).
Support for making a return smooth is offered as opposed to the employee who is temporarily separated from work with child-rearing, care, etc.
My company promotes the acquisition of a child-care leave or nursing-care leave. Rewards and promotion – Leaves types)
I am allowed to have different types of leaves, especially such as child care/maternity and/or leave at different times.
This company specifies what kind of capability is required for a recruitment stage.
The aptitude required to work in a recruitment stage is specific.
I am satisfied with the success I have achieved in my career Job satisfaction – Career development)
I am satisfied with the success I have achieved in my career.
I am satisfied with the progress I have made for income. Job satisfaction – Rewards
/ Compensation)
I am satisfied with the progress I have made for income.
I am satisfied with the progress I have made toward meeting my overall career goal. Job satisfaction – Career achievement)
I am satisfied with the progress I have made towards meeting my overall career goal.
I am satisfied with the progress I have made for promotion. Job satisfaction – Promotion)
I am satisfied with the progress I have made for promotion.
I am satisfied with the progress I have made for the development of skills or knowledge. Job satisfaction – (Training and development)
I am satisfied with the progress I have made for the development of skills or knowledge
I anticipate many opportunities for me to be promoted in this company. Rewards and promotion – Promotion fairness)
I anticipate many opportunities for me to be promoted in this organization.
Being promoted frequently in the future is expected. Rewards and promotion – Promotion fairness)
Being promoted frequently in the future is expected.
I have an opportunity to promote in this company more than the present position and rank. Rewards and promotion – Internal recruiting for promotion)
I have an opportunity to be promoted in this organization more than in the present position.
Ul-Ameeq, Ameeq; Hanif, Furqan; 2013; Impact of Training on Employee’s Development and Performance
Our organization conducts extensive training programs for its employees in all aspects of quality. Training and development– Training program in place)
The human resource department always updates employees in oncoming training programs.
Employees in each job will normally go through training programs every year. Training and Development– Skills and knowledge development)
I am given the chance to go for training at least once a year.
Training needs are identified through a formal performance appraisal mechanism. Training and development– Training program in place)
The human resource department always updates employees in oncoming training programs.
There are formal training programs to teach new employees the skills they need to perform their jobs. Training and development– Training program in place)
The new employee receives on-the-job training on their entry.
I believe the social circle in the firm is expanding due to participation in the training program
I believe my promotion is a result of induction of the training program Training and development – Training program and career development)
Employee training is linked with an individual career path.
I believe that my set targets and objective are attained and identified by the firm through a training program Training and development – Training program and career development)
Employee training is linked with an individual career path.
I believe that my pay scale has increased as a result of participation in the appropriate training program Training and development – Training program and career development)
Employee training is linked with an individual career path.
I believe that more career paths will emerge and more opportunities will come my way after participating in the training program Training and development – Training program and career development)
Employee training is linked with an individual career path.
Training has helped me in improving my overall required skills for work Training and Development – Skills and knowledge development)
I have been well-trained by this organization for my current job.
In our organization, Training motivates employees to be more committed to organizational goals
My career path is more in shape due to my participation in the training program Training and development – Training program and career development)
Employee training is linked with an individual career path.
Kyndt, Eva; Dochy, Filip; Michielsen, Maya;
Moeyaert, Bastiaan; 2009; Employee Retention: Organisational and Personal Perspectives.
The executive staff tries to understand the problems employees experience in their work. Employee retention– Grievances)
I always find the HR department deeply involved in grievances.
On the job, I have sufficient opportunity to use my personal talents and use my initiative. Employee retention– Skills and knowledge development)
My organization allows me to be innovative.
The executive staff in this company seems to make an effort to be nice to the employees. Employee retention– Participation)
I find it easy to communicate work issues with the management team.
At work, there seems to be an honest interest in the things I’m doing outside of work.
The executive staff in this company always appear to be ready to give advice about how I can learn something new. (Performance management – Supervisor support)
My supervisor actively supports me in the performance of my job, and I receive helpful feedback from him.
We can criticize the work regulations and our criticisms are heard. Employee retention– Participation)
I find it easy to communicate work issues with the management team.
When reforms are implemented, it’s because somebody had a good idea that was implemented.
My company gives me the opportunity to get training in subjects that interest me. Training and development– Training program in place)
A lot of time is assigned to employee training in this organization.
My company stimulates me to think about where I stand and where I need to get to achieve the company goals.
In this company, they believe in me. Employee retention– Loyalty)
I feel like part of the organization team.
In this company, people can really choose what work they want to do.
At work I am doing stimulates me to develop myself in things that I’m not yet very good at.
The company motivates me to develop, if possible, my own work-related interests.
In this company I have the opportunity to organize my work so that it fits the way I learn.
For a large part, I determine how I work. Employee retention– Skills and knowledge development)
My organization allows me to be innovative.
There are lots of ways that I can choose to learn.
Our ideas and interests are taken seriously by executive staff. Employee retention– Decision making)
I am allowed to make a decision related to My work.
My company gives me the opportunity to specialize in my strengths.
Most executives make an effort to get to know us. Employee retention– Grievances)
I always find the HR department deeply involved in grievances.
I have the feeling that I have to put my own ideas aside to meet the corporate strategy.
In my job, I have the opportunity to do something with my skills and knowledge.
In my job, I am stimulated to think about the skills that I am good at. Employee retention– Skills and knowledge development)
My organization allows me to be innovative.
We have a lot of freedom of choice when it comes to the tasks we have to do. Employee retention– Decision making)
I am allowed to make a decision related to My work.
My executive appreciates it when someone has a new way of looking at a problem. Employee retention– Skills and knowledge development)
My organization allows me to be innovative.
I’m planning on working for another company within a period of three years.
Within this company, my work gives me satisfaction. Job satisfaction – Individual satisfaction)
I am satisfied with the contentment my work gives me.
If I wanted to do another job or function, I would look first at the possibilities within this company.
I see a future for myself within this company.
It doesn’t matter if I’m working for this company or another, as long as I have work.
If it were up to me, I will definitely be working for this company for the next five years.
If I could start over again, I would choose to work for another company. Employee retention– Turnover intention)
If you are given an option, you will choose to work for the current organization.
If I received an attractive job offer from another company, I would take the job.
The work I’m doing is very important to me.
I love working for this company. Employee retention– Turnover intention)
If you are given an option, you will choose to work for the current organization.
I have checked out a job in another company previously.
Ibrahim & Al-Falasi ; 2014, Employee Loyalty and Engagement in UAE Public Sector
I would be very happy to spend the rest of my career with this organization.
I enjoy discussing my organization with people outside it.
I really feel as if this organization’s problems are my own. Employee retention– Loyalty)
I feel like part of the organization team.
I do not feel like “a part of the family” at my organization. Employee retention– Loyalty)
I feel like part of the organization team.
I do not feel “emotionally attached” to this organization.
This organization has a great deal of personal meaning for me. Employee retention– Personal attitude and commitment)
My organization has a great deal of personal meaning for me.
I do not feel a strong sense of belonging to my organization.
One of the major reasons I continue to work for this organization is that I believe that loyalty is important.
I was taught to believe in the value of remaining loyal to one organization.
It would be very hard for me to leave my organization right now, even if I wanted to. Employee retention– Turnover intention)
It would be very hard for me to leave my organization right now, even if I wanted to.
Too much in my life would be disrupted if I decided to leave my organization in the near future
Right now, staying with my organization is a matter of necessity as much as desire. Employee retention– Turnover intention)
Right now, staying with my organization is a matter of necessity as much as desire.
I feel that I have too few options to consider leaving this organization.
of the few negative consequences of leaving this organization would be the scarcity of available alternatives.
One of the major reasons I continue to work for this organization is that an alternative organization may not match the overall benefits I have here.
Jaros, Stephen; 2007; Meyer and Allen Model of Organizational Commitment: Measurement Issues
I am very happy to be a member of this organization Employee retention– Loyalty)
I feel like part of the organization team.
I worry about the loss of investments I have made in this organization
If I wasn’t a member of this organization, I would be sad because my life would be disrupted
I am loyal to this organization because I have invested a lot in it, emotionally, socially, and economically
I often feel anxious about what I have to lose with this organization
Sometimes I worry about what might happen if something was to happen to this organization and I was no longer a member
I am dedicated to this organization because I fear what I have to lose in it
I feel that I owe this organization quite a bit because of what it has done for me Employee retention– Loyalty)
I feel part of the organization team
My organization deserves my loyalty because of its treatment of me
I feel I would be letting my co-workers down if I wasn’t a member of this organization Employee retention– Loyalty)
I feel part of the organization team
I would be very happy to spend the rest of my career with this organization
I enjoy discussing my organization with people outside it
I really feel as if this organization’s problems are my own
I think that I could easily become as attached to another organization as I am to this one
I do not feel like ‘part of the family’ at my organization
I do not feel ’emotionally attached’ to this organization
This organization has a great deal of personal meaning for me Job satisfaction – Retention)
I am satisfied to be a member of a successful organization.
I do not feel a strong sense of belonging to my organization
I am not afraid of what might happen if I quit my job without having another one lined up (R)
It would be very hard for me to leave my organization right now, even if I wanted to Employee retention– Turnover intention)
It would be very hard for me to leave my organization right now, even if I wanted to.
Too much in my life would be disrupted if I decided I wanted to leave my organization now
It wouldn’t be too costly for me to leave my organization now
Right now, staying with my organization is a matter of necessity as much as desire Employee retention– Turnover intention)
Right now, staying with my organization is a matter of necessity as much as desire.
I feel that I have too few options to consider leaving this organization Employee retention– Turnover intention)
If you are given an option, you will choose to work for the current organization.
Al-Kahtani, Nasser; Khan, Nawab; 2014; An exploratory study of human resource development practices in the telecom industry in Saudi Arabia: a case study of the private sector.
Employees in your company are not afraid to express or discuss their feelings with their superiors/supervisors or even with colleagues
Employees are encouraged to experiment with new methods and try out creative ideas.
When an employee commits any mistake, his supervisor treats it with understanding and helps him to learn from such a mistake rather than punishing/discouraging him. (Performance management – Supervisor support)
My supervisor actively supports me in the performance of my job, and I receive helpful feedback from him.
There is a good team spirit and cooperation in the organization. Employee retention – Team building and cooperation)
There is a good team spirit and cooperation in the organization.
All the employees are aware of the human resource development policies followed in the organization. Employee retention – Retention)
HRM policy caters to voluntary departure from the organization.
Employee retention – Turnover intention)
The termination process in your organization is systemically implemented.
Promotion decisions are based on the capability of the person promoted and not on my favoritism.
Employees are briefed about the company’s future plans so as to develop them for the future.
Career and growth opportunities are pointed out to juniors to senior officers.
There is a well-developed human resource information system in this organization.
People lacking competence in doing their jobs are helped to acquire competence rather than being left unattended
Specific training programs are being organized in your organization on regular basis. Training and Development– Skills and knowledge development)
I am given the opportunity to attend an un-programmed necessary training course.
Employees are sponsored for training on the basis of genuine training needs. Training and development– Well-designed training program)
Training courses have a great deal of influence on your development and performance.
Employees, who have been given a chance of sponsored training, take it seriously and utilize the training for development.
There is a mechanism in this organization to reward good work done or any other contribution made by the employees. Rewards and promotion – Salary determination)
HRM policy determines pay in the organization.
Den Hartog, Deanne N.; Boon, Corine; Verburg, Robert; Croon, Marcel; 2013; HRM, Communication, Satisfaction, and Perceived Performance: A Cross-Level Test
Training (at different stations) is provided regularly to me. Training and development– Training program in place)
The new employee receives on-the-job training on their entry.
My job and tasks offer opportunities to learn new things. Training and Development– Skills and knowledge development)
I am always encouraged by my department to attend seminars, conferences, and workshops.
Managers take my career ambitions and goals into account here.
I have opportunities for development within this organization. Training and Development– Skills and knowledge development)
I am always encouraged by my department to attend seminars, conferences, and workshops.
Managers offer equal opportunities to everyone here regardless of gender, ethnicity, nationality, sexual orientation, or religion.
I can determine and make changes in the way in which I perform my work.
I have room to make decisions on issues relating to my work.
In my work, I am part of a team. Employee retention – Team building and cooperation)
There is a good team spirit and cooperation in the organization.
The work demands I am appraised on for my job are clear to me.
I know how the managers rate my performance on my work tasks. Performance management- Performance evaluation clarity)
I have a clear understanding of how my performance is evaluated.
Dhiman, Giri; Mohanty, R; 2010; HRM Practices, attitudinal outcomes, and turnover intent: an empirical study in Indian oil and gas exploration and production sector
The performance of the employee is measured on the basis of objective quantifiable results. Performance management- Objectivity)
Individual performance is measured objectively.
The Appraisal system in our organization is development and growth-oriented.
Employees are provided performance-based feedback and counseling. Performance management- Feedback)
Employees are regularly provided performance-based feedback.
Employees have faith in the performance appraisal system.
The appraisal data is used for making decisions like job rotation, promotion, training, and compensation.
My company has a proper two-way communication system that enables me to interact with top management and get regular information from management regarding what is going in the company
My company provides me with reasonable opportunities to express grievances and raise personal concerns Rewards and promotion – Care)
My monetary concerns are assisted and resolved by the HRM department.
My company has a proper grievance management system
My company encourages employees to be creative, innovative and do new things Employee retention– Skills and knowledge development)
My organization allows me to be innovative.
The work environment in my office is pleasant Employee retention– Work environment)
My organization provides good working conditions/environment.
The rewards in our company are directly related to performance at work Rewards and promotion – Compensation types)
There are performance-related pay methods in places such as basic pay increases, bonuses, or allowance.