Reducing Employee Turnover and Employee Loyalty

Introduction

Employee job satisfaction is a positive emotional state that comes from both their personal and organizational assessment. Worker motivation and commitment are two sides of the working process. Job satisfaction is linked to employees’ perceptions of how their work contributes to their needs (Jex & Britt, 2014). The purpose of this paper is to investigate how job satisfaction can influence various aspects of organizational behavior.

In particular, it is necessary to research how organizations can reduce turnover, decrease employee absenteeism, boost workers’ physical and mental stability at the workplace, allow them to obtain necessary skills more easily, and make them more inclined to cooperate through effective motivation techniques. However, it is crucial to state that job satisfaction should be linked to employee functionality in general and the various components of their activity during the workflow.

Literature Review

Different theories exist that provide insights into the methods and techniques of enhancing organizational performance and behavior of the workers. This topic is particularly important in connection with the internalization of companies and changes in working conditions (Jex & Britt, 2014). It is worth noting that almost all of the contemporary theories are based on the assessment of the workers’ needs and the implications for their motivation. Also, almost all researches describe the structure and content of these needs.

The two-factor theory of Herzberg states that employee satisfaction with work depends on its internal characteristics and content. Also, any dissatisfaction depends on the attributes of the external work and its context. In general, the theory outlines the two categories that affect motivation the most, which are hygiene and motivator factors (Panay, n.d.). However, this approach has some issues in common with the pyramid of needs developed by Abraham Maslow.

Analyzing the two approaches, it can be concluded that the hygienic needs of Herzberg’s theory are related to the lower levels of Maslow’s approach. Also, the motivating factors are correlated with higher levels of the pyramid.

In general, Maslow’s approach is a particular hierarchical chart of human needs; however, the scientist emphasized that this categorization may be subject to alteration because it is dynamic. According to this approach, the needs of employees can be very diverse, and they are directly dependent on the characteristics of the personality of each individual. However, the pyramid structure reflects the instinctive, basic, and exalted people’s needs (Panay, n.d.). Even though the basic needs dominate, and more distinguished ones come to the fore when the basic requirements are satisfied, the severity of the needs may be expressed differently in each employee.

Another approach to motivation is revealed in the Hawthorne Effect. It suggests that increased attention to the employee by upper management promotes higher motivation and commitment (Panay, n.d.). The workers will be more dedicated to working if they realize that the management is paying special attention to them. Quite separately, Vroom’s theory assumes that the presence of a need in a person is not sufficient for his or her full involvement in an operation.

Many researchers believe that people expect that their chosen behavior will allow them to meet their needs and, therefore, it stimulates them to work harder. In the same manner, the theory of attribution asserts the existence of organizational behavior as well. Weiner argued that several external factors are of significant importance. If the employee attributes success to internal factors, he or she will have high expectations for future success (Panay, n.d.). Such a worker will set higher goals and will be ready for professional achievements. Consequently, it is essential to manage such attributions with caution, occasionally stimulating each of them.

Analysis

In the cafe where I used to work, many employees were dissatisfied with the benefits they received apart from the salary. Analyzing the organizational activities and applying Maslow’s theory as well as other approaches to them, it can be seen that the management should not rely solely on remuneration to motivate personnel. It is worth noting that the company’s policy and administration are aimed at the partial satisfaction of the needs of employees.

They try to motivate workers through wages, which do not always correspond to their expectations and the efforts that they contribute (Hedges, 2014). For example, the organization addresses the basic needs of the employees as it ensures safety, but it neglects comfortable conditions for labor (J. Smith, personal communication, 2016).

For instance, the cafe has acceptable illumination, good heating, and so on, but the work schedule does not allow the employees to recuperate, which results in ineffective performance (J. Smith, personal communication, October 14, 2016). Moreover, despite the possibility of paid holidays, the staff may not always take a day off due to high employee turnover and the general shortage of personnel. Moreover, senior management does not hold a sufficient level of direct control of organizational performance.

Also, many employees are not satisfied with the content of the activities; they are monotonous and do not allow workers to show initiative and autonomy in decision-making (J. Smith, personal communication, October 14, 2016). Most of the jobs do not allow opportunities for professional growth; respectively, employees do not invest in the development of the organization (Hedges, 2014). Nevertheless, the degree of responsibility requires them to experience constant stress in the workplace.

Conclusion and Recommendations

Thus, a group of factors affects the dissatisfaction of employees. It is suggested that a positive work environment and conditions supported by motivating factors will lead to higher commitment. The source of boosting satisfaction can be both motivator and hygiene factors, depending on the needs of each employee of the cafe. The approach to enhancing the existing system should take into account the behavioral characteristics of individuals and the current characteristics of the environment (Jex & Britt, 2014).

Nevertheless, it is crucial to mention that as per Maslow’s theory, the factors that motivate a person in a particular situation cannot exert any influence on him or her in another situation or another person in a similar setting. Thus, the proposed solutions should not be considered universal to any situation.

Several measures and techniques that will help an organization to improve the situation can be recommended based on Maslow’s approach. KPI and rewards for effective ideas are among the material factors that can encourage the staff to be more active (Jex & Britt, 2014). Also, to support employees’ basic needs according to the theory, the management should consider expanding social support. As an additional incentive, the company might introduce aid for young families and offer employee benefits for partners.

However, special attention should be paid to the workers’ self-actualization (Panay, n.d.). This may be feasible through the training system; internal competition for vacant managerial positions; and corporate portal and internal social network. Through the introduction of this enhanced system, the company will be able to solve the problem of reducing staff turnover and increase employee loyalty gradually.

References

Hedges, K. (2014). 8 Common causes of workplace demotivation. Web.

Jex, S., & W. Britt, T. (2014). Organizational psychology. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons.

Panay, M. (n.d.). 5 Psychological theories of motivation to increase productivity. Web.