The Effect of Local HRM Practices on International HRM

Subject: Employee Management
Pages: 15
Words: 4180
Reading time:
15 min
Study level: PhD

Abstract

Human resource management is the process of coordinating the efforts and talents of individual employees within an organization towards the achievements of the goals and objectives of the respective organization. There are different strategies that have been developed towards the achievement of the goals of different organizations. The strategies and practices used in the management of human resources depend on the environment where respective organizations operate. It is presumed that Qatar’s local and international human resource management practices are different. However, they are similar because Qatar’s human resource management practices contribute to the development and implementation of international human resource management. Previous research activities indicate similarities and differences between local and international human resource management practices, but local human resource management practices define international human resource management.

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Background to the Problem

Human resource management is a practice of effective coordination of the human resources of an organization towards the achievements of the goals and objectives of an organization. There are different strategies that are developed by different organizations in Qatar to improve the quality of their human resources towards the achievements of their goals and objectives. Generally, human resources systems used by organizations differ. There are several factors that influence the human resource strategies and systems adopted or implemented by an organization. However, external business environmental factors play an important role in the choice of a strategy used by an organization. This paper discusses the effect of local human resource management practices in Qatar on international human resource management.

Qatar is a country in Asia and the United Arab Emirates region. It is one of the highly competitive states on the globe in terms of employment and employment creation. In the recent past, there has been an increase in economic activities in Qatar, which has attracted several investors and business enterprises. The increased establishment of business enterprises and economic activities has raised the concern on the human resource practices in the country locally. Although the human resource management practices used in Qatar are based on the business environment of the country, it has an effect on international human resource management. This is due to the establishment of multinational companies or corporations in the state. The economic status of Qatar has attracted both local and international investors and business organizations, which has effects on the management and operation of the respective organizations (Wright & Snell, 2008).

The human resource management system used locally in Qatar is different from those used internationally. This is due to the differentials in the external business factors that influence the operation of business organizations internationally and in Qatar. Although they may be similar in certain elements but they differ. Basically, the human resource management strategies used in Qatar are based on the needs and requirements of business organizations operating in Qatar. Business organizations depend on the business environmental factors that can affect their operation in the local environment but ignore the international business environment factors. Most organizations that consider the international and local business environment factors are international business organizations to enhance their efficiency in operation globally (Hollingsworth & Streeck, 2009).

There are several external business environment factors that influence or affect the choice of human resource management strategies adopted by an organization. However, the most important factor that influences the human resource practices adopted by organizations locally and internationally is the culture of the respective business environment, for instance, Qatar. The business culture of Qatar determines the strategies that function effectively in the environment and leads to the achievements of the goals and objectives of respective business organizations. Some strategies may effectively function in the Qatar business environment but fail in another different business environment due to the differentials in the business cultures of the respective business environment or states (Bartol, Tein, Matthews, & Martin, 2005).

The effects of Qatar’s human resource management practices on international human resource management are a new and original topic. This will lead to a better understanding of the effects and contributions of human resource management practices and strategies adopted in Qatar on international human resource management. There are several research activities that have been conducted in the past on the human resource management practices and strategies in Qatar and internationally. However, few research activities have been conducted on the effects of Qatar’s human resource management practices on international human resource management. Qatar’s human resource management practices play an important role in the development of international human resource management (Wright & Snell, 2008).

International human resource management practices rely on local human resource management practices. Basically, the human resource management practices applied internationally are derived from different local human resource management practices. Individual organizations and management team does not concentrate on local human resource management practices when dealing with international human resource management, which has affected the adoption of effective human resource management at the international level (Hollingsworth & Streeck, 2009). This topic will enable the management teams and individual organizations to evaluate the effects, contributions, and importance of local human resource management practices on international human resource management practices. This will enhance the efficiency of human resource management at the international level and enable international and multinational companies to achieve their goals and objectives within the stated deadline. The ability to achieve the goals and objectives of an organization depends on the quality of the human resource team (Becton & Schraeder, 2009).

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Aims of the Research

This is a research proposal on the effects of local human resource management practices in Qatar and the international human resource management practices. There are several aims and objectives of the research, which are aimed at achieving the general goal and objective of the entire research. The aims of the research are;

  • Determining and discussing the local human resource management practices in Qatar
  • Determining and discussing the international human resource management practices
  • Comparing and contrasting the Qatar and international human resource management practices
  • Evaluating the contributions of Qatar human resource management practices on the international human resource management practices
  • Discussing the emerging trends in Qatar human resource management practices
  • Discussing the emerging trends in the international human resource management practices
  • Evaluating and discussing the effects of Qatar human resource management practices on international human resource management

These aims will guide the research process. Basically, the aims of a research are the guidelines in the designing and conducting a research study. It will also define the methods to use in the collection and analysis of data to obtain valid and reliable results or findings.

Motivation for the Research

Human resource management is a practice that determines the success of an organization. There are several resources that organizations require to coordinate effectively towards the achievements of their goals and objectives. However, the most important resource is human resources. Human resources are important because they are concerned with the development and implementation of strategies of an organization. The success or failure of an organization is determined by the quality of human resources within the respective organization. Furthermore, the management of human resources and strategies developed in monitoring and managing human resources is important towards the success of an organization (Bartol, Tein, Matthews, & Martin, 2005).

There are different human resource practices that individual organizations may develop to assist in the achieving of the stated goals and objectives. The human resource management practices used in Qatar can also be used internationally towards the increased efficiency in operation and achievements of the goals and objectives of an organization. Globalization is an aspect that has opened up several aspects of Qatar’s operations to international standards (Ghemawat, 2005). Basically, globalization influences the strategies used by different organizations and business entities towards the achievements of their goals and objectives. It is important to consider the effects and importance of Qatar’s human resource management practices in international human resource management. Globalization has opened up the debate on the importance and effects of Qatar operations on international operations. The increased need for globalization has motivated the research on the need for considering and discussing the effects of Qatar’s human resource management practices on international human resource management (Wright & Snell, 2008).

The research has also been influenced by increased human capital and technology mobility. In the recent past, human capital and technology are mobile due to globalization and increased development and advancement in management practice. This has enabled the use of Qatar’s human resource management practices to manage human resources internationally. Qatar is one of the states that have attracted multinational and international corporations. This is due to the high returns expected or forecasted on the investments. There are slight differences between the human resource management practices used by local organizations and multinational corporations in Qatar. Furthermore, there are certain similarities in the human resources management strategies and practices between multinational corporations and local business organizations (Bartol, Tein, Matthews, & Martin, 2005).

The mobility of human capital and technology has enabled the exchange of strategies from different business environments. This has led to the development of human resource management strategies and practices. It has also enabled different business organizations to acquire new and effective strategies and practices that assist in increasing efficiency in operation. The mobility of human capital is a motivational factor in the research because it has also enabled the exchange of ideas among local companies across the globe, which has affected international human resource management (Ghemawat, 2005).

Overall Research Question

This is research that requires answering specific research questions. These questions will assist in achieving the goals and objectives of the research. This is proposed research on the effects of Qatar’s human resource management practices on international human resource management. The research questions should be used to assist in the achievements of the aims of the research. Therefore, the research questions will be derived from the aims of the research. The general questions of the research are;

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  • What is the human resource management practices used locally in Qatar?
  • What are the international human resource management practices similar to those used locally in Qatar?
  • What are the emerging trends in human resource management practices in Qatar?
  • What are the emerging trends in international human resource management?
  • What are the difference and the similarity between Qatar and international human resource management?
  • What is the effect of Qatar’s human resource management practices on international human resources?
  • What is the significance or importance of Qatar’s human resource management strategies and practices on international human resource management?

Literature Review

Human resource management is a common practice among organizations because it is concerned with the efficiency and success of different organizations. Organizations require appropriate human resource strategies and practices based on their area of operation, goals and objectives, and the business environment where they operate. Basically, the efficiency and competency of human resources of individual organizations in Qatar are determined by the human resource strategies and practices adopted by the management team. The human resource management strategies and practices adopted by different organizations such as Qatar Airline and the United Arab Emirates and the Fly Emirates differ due to the differentials in the human resource needs of organizations in the business environment (Aycan, 2005).

International corporations such as the Fly Emirates are believed to have effective human resource management strategies compared to local business organizations such as Qatar Airline. This is due to the level of efficiency of multinational organizations. Efficiency in the operation of an organization is directly connected to the quality of human resources within the respective organization. Basically, business organizations increase efficiency in operation by developing the best human resource practices and strategies. The ability to develop effective strategies and implement the respective strategies is determined by the efficiency and competency of the human resource team of the respective organization. Multinational or international business organizations such as the Fly Emirates accrue large profits and achieve their goals and objectives within the stated deadline or time, which is connected to the ability and capability of the human resource team (Becton & Schraeder, 2009).

Management is the effective coordination of the resources of an organization towards the achievements of its goals and objectives. There are several uncertainties that affect the operation of business organizations but they have no direct influence over them. Organizations require establishing effective operational strategies to address the uncertainties and maintain or increase their levels of income. This calls for strategic management, which is important and essential to the effective management of uncertainties in the business environment. Organizations such as Qatar Airlines should manage their resources strategically to enhance efficiency. Human resources must also be managed strategically to ensure increased efficiency and ability to achieve the goals and objectives of the respective organization (Wright & Snell, 2008).

The human resource management practices used by Qatar organizations such as Qatar Airlines may differ from those used by international or international business organizations such as the Fly Emirates due to the differentials in human resource needs of respective organizations. Local human resource management practices are used by organizations to address the Qatar human resource needs of organizations (Theriou & Chatzoglou, 2008). However, multinational organizations operating in Qatar, for instance, Fly Emirates must also adjust their human resource management strategies and practices to the Qatar human resource management expectations to effectively develop and manage their human resources. Local human resource management needs and expectations in Qatar define the practices and strategies developed by both multinational and local business organizations. The strategies used in different environments differ due to differentials in external business factors that influence the management of human resources within organizations (Deadrick & Gibson, 2009).

Human resource management practices are used by different organizations to gain a competitive advantage over their competitors in the business environment, for example, Fly Emirates. The Fly Emirates is a multinational organization, and it has developed strategies that have enabled it to gain a competitive advantage over the local airline, Qatar Airlines. Organizations should develop strategies that address their human resource needs and comply with the external business requirements (Ghemawat, 2005). Globalization has affected the operation of several companies and business organizations as they have to focus on the global market rather than the Qatar market. Local human resource management practices focus on the Qatar market demands or requirements, while international human resource management focuses on the global market. International or global is a collection of several regional or local markets. The Qatar human resource management practices affect international human resource management because it is part of international human resource management, for instance, Qatar Employment Law. The Qatar Employment Law has influenced the establishment of the International Employment Law, which has enhanced appointment, planning and organization, resignation and compensation among others. It has also influenced the establishment of minimum wages for specific job groups internationally, which has improved international Human Resource Management (Bartol, Tein, Matthews, & Martin, 2005).

Approach/ Research Design

This is research that will review the effects of Qatar’s human resource management practices on international human resource management. Basically, the local human resource management practices that will be reviewed are those in Qatar. Qatar is one of the states that have been attracting different investors due to the speculated and expected high returns on investments due to the economic development and growth experienced in the country. There are several research activities that have been conducted on human resource management practices in different areas around the globe. However, the focus will be on Qatar in particular because the human resource management practices in the country will be used as the local human resource management practices that affect international human resource management (Aycan, 2005).

The research findings and data on human resource management practices presented by different researchers will be reviewed and used for this study. The various human resource management practices and strategies that are used in Qatar that influence human resource management internationally will be reviewed. This will enable the researcher to compare and contrast the practices and the international human resource management. Basically, local human resource management practices affect international human resource management (Budhwar & Debrah, 2008).

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There are several business organizations in Qatar. Considering the economic activities and status of the country, both local and multinational companies have been attracted due to the expected high returns on investments. The human resource management practices used by both multinational and local will be reviewed and evaluated. Furthermore, the similarities and differences between the practices will be determined and highlighted. The human resource management practices that are used in both local and multinational corporations will be discussed and their influence or effects on the international human resource management discussed (Bartol, Tein, Matthews, & Martin, 2005).

The information used in this research will be obtained from articles. The articles used in this study will be based on the local human resource management practices in Qatar and its surroundings and internationally. Comparisons will be made and the practices used in Qatar and its surroundings that have influenced or affected the international human resource management practices internationally determined and evaluated. Moreover, the information on human resource management practices in Qatar and internationally will be obtained from eight articles. The information from these articles will assist in guiding the research towards obtaining reliable and valid results that can be used in the future by other researchers to conduct further research on the topic (Hollingsworth & Streeck, 2009).

After reviewing the available literature on the topic, a questionnaire will be developed and distributed among local and multinational companies in Qatar. This will enable the ability to collect primary data from different companies in Qatar applying local and international human resource management strategies and practices within the organization. Moreover, this will enable the research to reveal the effects of local human resource management practices in Qatar on international human resource management (Becton & Schraeder, 2009).

Qualitative Method in Methodology

This is a research proposal on the effects of Qatar Human Resource Management practices on international Human Resource Management. Generally, this research will adopt the qualitative method in the collection and analysis of data for successful completion. Considering the nature of the data required they will be obtained from case studies and articles among others. Case studies that have been presented on human resource management practices in Qatar will be reviewed and analyzed. Furthermore, articles will be reviewed and their impacts or importance on the international human resource management determined during the analysis of results. Moreover, interviews and questionnaires will be used in the research to enable the researcher to obtain primary data and avail diverse data that can enhance credibility during analysis.

Anticipated Results/ Expected Results

Human resource management is dynamic and changes with changes in the business environment. Although it is presumed that the human resource management practices used in Qatar are not applied internationally, it is true that human resource management practices used locally are also used in international human resource management. The international human resource management practices are derived from local human resource management. There are several results that are expected from the proposed research. However, it is basically expected that Qatar’s human resource management practices, influence the development of international human resource management (Hollingsworth & Streeck, 2009).

Local human resource management practices are those strategies that are used by business organizations locally to assist in the achieving of the goals and objectives of an organization. The local human resource management practices are those strategies or practices that are used locally effectively to increase the efficiency of human resources within an organization. It is presumed that Qatar and international human resource management practices are different. However, international human resource management applies Qatar’s human resource management practices based on the local business environment where the respective organization operates. It is expected that the research will reveal that Qatar’s human resource management practices influence the development and application of international human resource management in specific business environments (Ghemawat, 2005).

Globalization, technology and human capital mobility are a factor that affects the development of human resource management both locally and internationally. Basically, the mobility of human resources or capital has influenced international human resource management because individuals can freely move from one business environment to the other. This has also influenced the use of human resource management practices used in Qatar and other regions internationally (Theriou & Chatzoglou, 2008).

Significance of the Proposed Research

This research is significant to business organizations operating in Qatar or internationally. There are several resources that organizations must coordinate effectively to achieve their goals and objectives. However, the most important resources are human resources. Organizations must coordinate their human resources effectively and ensure they achieve their goals and objectives within the stated deadline or time. Both local and international business organizations require effective strategies and practices to enhance the efficiency of their human resource team. This proposed research is significant for both local and international business organizations towards increased efficiency in different ways (Wright & Snell, 2008).

Considering the aims of the research, this research is significant because it will enable different organizations and human resources to determine the importance of Qatar’s human resource practices in the development and implementation of international human resource management. Both local and international business organizations must understand the importance and influence of local and international human resource management practices on the success and successful implementation of their strategies (Aycan, 2005).

International business organizations must adequately understand Qatar’s business environments and cultures before commencing operations. Basically, there are several international or multinational organizations that have failed or ceased operations due to the inability to adjust to the expectations of different business environments. Furthermore, there are organizations that have not been able to achieve their goals and objectives within the stated deadline in some markets due to the quality of human resources and strategies used in respective business environments, for instance, Euro Disney Paris (Deadrick & Gibson, 2009). Such organizations failed or incurred losses due to the human resource strategies that they adopted in the respective markets. Adequate understanding of the local human resource management practices used could have assisted the respective organizations in enhancing efficiency and achieving their goals and objectives within the stated deadline. Therefore, this research is important because it will assist international corporations in understanding the effects of human resource management practices used locally in international human resource management. This will enable multinational corporations to develop flexible strategies that allow adjustment to the dynamic changes that can affect the operations of the organization, acquisition, and development of the human resources within the respective organizations (Theriou & Chatzoglou, 2008).

Adequate and effective understanding of the contributions, effects and significance of local human resource management practices on international human resource management will enable multinational corporations and companies to make informed choices when designing and developing their human resource strategies and plans. Adoption of the best and most appropriate human resource management practices enables organizations to improve the quality of their human resources, address dynamic changes in the business environment and achieve their goals and objectives within the stated deadline or time. Therefore, this research will enable organizations to design and adopt effective human resource management strategies and practices and achieve their goals and objectives within the stated deadline or time (Aycan, 2005).

Limitations of the research

This is a research proposal on the effects of local Human Resource Management on international Human Resource Management. Although the proposal is based on the effects of local Human Resource Management on international Human Resource Management, it focuses on Human Resource Management in Qatar and not all local Human Resource Management practices. Different locals have different human resource management practices due to the differentials in the business environmental factors that affect the operation and management of resources within organizations. Therefore, the findings and results of this research will be limited to the local human resource management practices in Qatar because it will concentrate on the human resource management practices in Qatar. This might not portray the effects of other local human resource management practices on international human resource management (Becton & Schraeder, 2009).

Ethical considerations of the research

There are several types of research that have been conducted in the past. Furthermore, research activities are conducted frequently by different researchers to find solutions to different problems around the globe. Ethics is an important factor that must be considered by researchers to ensure reliable and valid results are obtained from respective research activities. Considering the nature of this proposed research and data expected to be collected, reviewed, evaluated and analyzed, there are certain ethics that must be considered to ensure successful research, for instance, accurate presentation and discussion of the human resource management practices in Qatar and their effects or influence on the international Human Resource Management. The human resource management practices in Qatar may affect international human resource management positively or negatively. Therefore, both the negative and positive effects of Human Resource Management practices in Qatar on International Human Resource Management should be discussed and presented. Moreover, the research should contain the effects of Qatar’s human resource management practices effects on International Human Resource Management only because that is the target area intended for use as a sample population in the research (Wright & Snell, 2008).

References

Aycan, Z. (2005). The Interplay between Cultural and Institutional/structural Contingencies in Human Resource Management Practices. International Journal of Human Resource Management, 45, 1083-1119.

Bartol, K., Tein, M., Matthews, G., & Martin, D. (2005). Management: A Pacific Rim focus. North Ryde, Australia: McGraw-Hill.

Becton, J. B., & Schraeder, M. (2009). Strategic Human Resources Management: Are we there yet? The Journal for Quality and Participation, 11, 123-136.

Budhwar, P., & Debrah, Y. A. (2008). Future Research on Human Resource Systems: A comparison of Locally Owned and MNC Subsidiaries in Taiwan. Asia Pacific Journal of Management, 10 (2), 197-218.

Deadrick, D. L., & Gibson, P. A. (2009). Revisiting the research-practice gap in HR: A longitudinal analysis. Human Resource Management Review, 12 (5), 144-153.

Ghemawat, P. (2005). Regional Strategies for Global Leadership. Harvard Business Review, 34, 98-108.

Hollingsworth, J. R., & Streeck, W. (2009). Countries and sectors: Concluding Remarks on Performance, Convergence and Competitiveness. New York: Oxford University Press.

Theriou, G., & Chatzoglou, P. (2008). Enhancing performance through best HRM practices, organizational learning and knowledge management. European Business Review, 7 (4), 185-207.

Wright, P. M., & Snell, S. A. (2008). Toward an Integrative View of Strategic Human Resource Management. Human Resource Management Review, 15 (3), 203-225.