Technological advances of the twentieth and twenty-first centuries have shaped the manufacturing industry on a global scale. Beverage production has developed under the influence of new technologies and managerial strategies, which enabled companies to improve their performance and enhance their competitive advantage (Flammini et al. 2017). Although the food and beverage manufacturing industries in Jamaica are developing at a high pace, the use of technology is still rather limited in various spheres (Johnson & Ruankaew 2017). Even leaders in the Jamaican market do not utilise recent technological advances extensively.
Problem Statement and Purpose of the Research
The reasons for the limited use of technological solutions can be diverse, including but not confined to the lack of vision, the prevalence of other priorities, the lack of knowledge and managerial skills, insufficient funds, and economic constraints in the region (Johnson & Ruankaew 2017). It has been acknowledged that the use of outdated technologies can result in considerable losses (Otles & Sakalli 2019). It is important to identify the exact causes of the limited utilisation of technology by a company operating in the market to detect the existing trend and develop a solution to the problem.
The use of high-tech advances is also a valuable basis for the use of the demand-driven approach that has proved to be efficient in the contemporary business environment (Mendes, Leal & Thomé 2016). This model is the most appropriate paradigm for modern companies as such variables as trends and customer preferences are rather difficult to predict, while demand can be satisfied with the help of technology effectively. This paper focuses on the problem of the inadequate use of technology and its adverse economic impact on the organisation. This research is implemented to explore the way demand-driven approach facilitated by the use of technology can improve the performance at a Jamaican company.
Wisynco Group Ltd. (WGL) is a large manufacturing company in the Caribbean (2019 Annual Report 2019). The company’s products are distributed across Jamaica, the United Kingdom, the United States, Bahamas, Antigua, Canada, Barbados, Panama, Trinidad, and some other countries. The large manufacturing company in the Caribbean has a centralised 360,000-square-foot warehouse, as well as a fleet of 65 trucks. The organisation also contracts 400 trucks to deliver the products in a timely manner. The gross profit reported in 2019 is $10.5 billion, and the sales increase in the same period is almost 16% (2019 Annual Report 2019). The company’s management emphasises its commitment to employing the latest technologies to improve their operations and meet their organisational goals.
The Aim of the Research and Research Questions
The aim of this research is to explore the use of technology in Wisynco Group Ltd. with the focus on major technological drivers employed in the Jamaican context and the potential of the use of the demand-driven approach. This dissertation focuses on the operations and performance of a large manufacturing company in the Caribbean. Specific attention will be paid to the mechanisms of decision-making related to the use of technology.
In order to achieve the aim mentioned above, the following objectives are identified:
- To research the limited use of technology and the outcomes of the use of the demand-driven model;
- To examine the extent to which bounded rationality paradigm can explain the decision-making process at Wisynco Group Ltd.;
- To investigate the ways demand-driven model is used in the context of Jamaican beverage manufacturing context, as well as the way it influences operations efficiency.
The research question can be formulated as follows:
- What are the peculiarities and outcomes of the use of the demand-driven approach at a large manufacturing and distribution company in the Caribbean?
This quantitative research will be based on the use of an online survey, and the data collection process will be facilitated by reviewing available literature and online sources. Regarding the sources to be utilised and analysed, these will be scholarly articles on such areas as the demand-driven approach, the use of technology in the beverage manufacturing industry. In addition, newsletters from the company’s websites, annual reports, and other public data related to the large manufacturing company in the Caribbean, as well as news articles, will be reviewed. The survey will encompass the completion of questionnaires addressing the use of technology and a demand-driven approach.
Survey Monkey will be utilized to implement the survey due to the convenience of this survey tool. This instrument ensures proper data encryption, so the confidentiality and anonymity of the participants will be safeguarded.
Employees in managerial and supervisory roles will take part in the research as these professionals are knowledgeable and can be motivated to participate actively in order to identify existing gaps and areas for improvement. The sample will include approximately 50 employees, which is the number of managers in the company. Convenience sampling technique will be used, which will be instrumental in examining the views of knowledgeable people and highly motivated employees. Since the target group is comparatively small, the entire cohort will be involved.
Bounded Rationality Concept
As mentioned above, bounded rationality concept was developed as a response to rational choice theory. In the 1950s, Herbert A. Simon coined the term that became rather influential in several branches of social science, including economics (Onozaki 2018). According to Herbert A. Simon, decision-makers were trying to be good at satisficing (a combination of the words satisfy and suffice) (Daft & Marcic 2016). Thus, instead of making rational choices, a person aims at satisfying their needs and wants without investing too many resources (funds, labour, technology, and so on). Importantly, Simon emphasised that decision-makers did not make rational choices based exclusively on pure calculations, analysis, and led by their own interests and preferences.
Individuals also took into account social norms, trends, ethics, peer pressure, and various other factors. The process of decision making is divided into three stages, including the acquisition of data, information processing, and methods utilised to make a choice (Mallard 2015). The utilisation of artificial intelligence in decision-making process is quite common for those relying on this approach (Onozaki 2018). People try to optimise decision making by analysing as many alternatives as possible.
Although the concept of bounded rationality has been employed for decades, it is still an effective model to explore decisionmakers’ behaviour. For instance, it has been found that modern managers with limited liability tend to acquire and process less data compared to decisionmakers characterised by unlimited liability (Mallard 2015). The cost of the acquisition of information also has an impact on managers with limited liability who access even less information. Another recent finding is that other people’s choices can influence the decision-making process as managers who have limited alternatives may observe other individuals making decisions and try to choose the best option based on this observation (Mallard 2015). The review of the recent literature shows that the model can be applied in various cases.
This theoretical framework can be instrumental in identifying decision-making practices employed at a specific organisation. For example, it can help in exploring the methods utilised to makes decisions regarding the use of technology at the WGL. It can be effective to consider all three stages of the process, including accessing and processing data, as well as developing the right method to choose the alternative.
Bounded Rationality Concept in the Jamaican and Caribbean Setting
The concept of bounded rationality has been applied in the private and public sectors in Caribbean countries. For instance, the political imbalances and economic constraints in the region are regarded as a result of inconsistency in the governmental decision-making process (Villanueva-Mansilla 2016). Bounded rationality presupposes the presence of two vital components: “clarity of desires” and “clarity of possibility” (Villanueva-Mansilla 2016, p. 200).
In simple terms, decisionmakers should understand what they want to achieve and know what can be done. Nevertheless, governmental institutions are characterised by low control over diverse aspects and an inability to prioritise (Villanueva-Mansilla 2016). Governments in Latin America are often quite weak due to the peculiarities of the development of these countries, which makes their management ineffective.
The two elements of bounded rationality mentioned above are often absent in the agendas of Caribbean countries, including Jamaica. Singh and Rambarath-Parasram (2019) claim that the countries of the Caribbean region tend to have orthodox economies where people make decisions based on mathematical models that are often biased and irrelevant. In many cases, such calculations are often grounded on the use of data collected and analysed in an inappropriate way.
Distorted data lead to erroneous conclusions and wrong choices. The researchers add that the psychological peculiarities of decisionmakers and other stakeholders, along with numerous relevant factors, have a considerable influence on the way projects and business operations evolve (Singh & Rambarath-Parasram 2019). One of the outcomes of this situation is the introduction of policies and government programs that have a negative effect on business activity and overall economic development of countries.
Vadeboncoeur (2017) examined the peculiarities of decision making by people living in the region related to environmental issues. The author stresses that people tend to make decisions depending on their psychological traits and emotions rather than specific data and proper analysis (Vadeboncoeur 2017). In relation to environmental risks, people prove to be guided by emotions that can be a response to some campaigns or different stakeholders’ actions. When making choices related to business operations and projects, individuals try to estimate risks, but this process is often associated with errors and miscalculations.
It is also emphasised that people living in countries such as Jamaica often lack sufficient data to make proper decisions (Vadeboncoeur 2017). In addition to the peculiarities of human data processing, decisionmakers’ access to information is limited due to diverse factors, including low access to advanced technology, activities of different groups, and other barriers. The lack of knowledge and expertise in decisionmakers are seen as influential factors as well.
Cultural peculiarities also play an important role in the adoption of bounded rationality concepts in Jamaica. In the Jamaican context, bounded rationality is combined with opportunism, and the latter tends to be a more influential factor affecting the decision-making process (DaSilva-Glasgow 2019). DaSilva-Glasgow (2019) notes that opportunism has an impact on transaction costs that often have adverse effects on the development of businesses. Opportunism “makes provision for self-interest seeking with guile,” and decisionmakers choose alternatives that are not beneficial for their companies or institutions (as cited in DaSilva-Glasgow 2019, p. 344).
Self-interest, joint with a low level of proficiency, makes decisionmakers choose options that can potentially threaten the development of a project or the entire organisation. In the Caribbean region, opportunism often prevails, but the shift to the enhanced rationality is also apparent. These transformations are found in the private sector where efficiency is vital, while opportunism is more influential in the public sector that is less prone to the challenges associated with the competition.
It is necessary to identify the peculiarities of the demand-driven model that is closely related to the utilisation of the most recent technological advances. The demand-driven approach is defined as “a system of technologies and business processes that sense and respond to demand signals in real-time, through a network of customers, suppliers, and employees” (Mendes, Leal & Thomé 2016, p. 154). This model implies the focus on demand rather than operations and the situation when decisions are made on the basis of demand (orders) rather than forecasts based on other types of data. Materials management is traditionally one of the areas mainly associated with the utilisation of the demand-driven approach as companies need to optimise their inventory operations (Miclo et al. 2018). Therefore, this model is specifically beneficial for manufacturing companies that need to allocate resources wisely and ensure the high efficiency of all operations to reduce costs and increase profit.
Mendes, Leal, and Thomé (2016) note that this approach is not solely linked to the supply chain, but is closely related to product development and marketing. In order to satisfy demand, companies try to change (update, improve, add new features and value) their products and services. New items are introduced to win or maintain a competitive advantage in the market that is mature and highly competitive.
By using technology organisations access feedback, which is critical for being able to satisfy the emerging or growing demand. Businesses also create new marketing strategies based on demand, which enables them to attract customers and increase sales (Mendes, Leal & Thomé 2016). The ability to detect demand in real time helps marketing specialists to be flexible and ensure the focus on the properties of the product or service that are most highly valued.
The approach is gaining momentum due to its efficiency and favourable influence on the development of companies. Researchers and practitioners work on new models to employ numerous demand-driven strategies to maximise their progress. For instance, product development is aligned with demand-driven supply chain management (Naghi Ganji, Shah & Coutroubis 2018). The reduction of costs and improved performance are the most apparent benefits of the synergy between the two areas. Importantly, the demand-driven approach has proved to be effective in vocational training and education (Ramasamy 2016).
Employees receive training based on the exact needs of organisations at a specific period of time. Traditionally, employees are trained in terms of the supply-based model that has proved to be less flexible and effective (Ramasamy 2016). Demand-driven approach equips companies with a clear understanding of the exact skills that are needed and the ways to ensure the rapid acquisition of the corresponding skills and knowledge. The use of the demand-driven framework in vocational education and on-the-job training is instrumental in addressing one of the most serious challenges to the development of manufacturing industries and the entire economy of the country.
It has been acknowledged that demand has become rather changeable, and it can be difficult to predict customers’ preferences and behaviours, as well as relevant trends in time (Brecher, Özdemir & Weber 2017). The development of technology has enabled manufacturers to address this issue and make decisions based on exact orders and demand remaining flexible. The demand-driven approach is chosen as a guiding concept of the research as it is necessary to identify the extent to which practitioners in the Jamaican context follow the existing trends and utilise the most effective paradigms.
Demand-Driven Approach and the Jamaican and Caribbean Landscape
The review of the current literature on the use of the demand-driven approach in the Jamaican or broader Caribbean context suggests that little attention is paid to this matter. Researchers tend to explore the implementation of demand-driven projects within the scope of the public sector (Mitchell 2016; Schoburgh 2018). The functioning of large companies and their performance on the international arena are also in the lenses of scholars. For instance, it is acknowledged that the Caribbean region, including Jamaica, adopts the latest trends as well and such efficient paradigms as the demand-driven approach are gradually utilised in this area (Schoburgh 2018).
Large companies are traditionally at the forefront of this process since they have sufficient resources to implement the corresponding changes (Kemp-Benedict, Drakes & Laing 2018). Importantly, corporations and big organisations have qualified managers who have the necessary knowledge and skills to implement the demand-driven approach. These high-profile professionals utilise the most advanced techniques that have proved to be effective on the global scale and in narrower national settings.
The Jamaican government is committed to contributing to the sustainable growth of businesses, which is manifested in the introduction of diverse projects. Notably, the government employs the demand-driven approach to allocate funds and support the most promising projects (Mitchell 2016). This model has proved to be effective as many communities have already witnessed considerable progress. These shifts became possible due to the changes in the legislative background in Jamaica. The country is aiming at the establishment of decentralised power, where local governments are aware of people’s needs and capable of meeting them (Schoburgh 2018).
Kemp-Benedict, Drakes, and Laing (2018) add that Jamaica and some other countries in the Caribbean region tend to use the demand-driven approach in their international trade operations, which has ensured the economic success of such practices. Companies manage to reduce costs and enhance their competitive advantage in the global trade context. This experience is utilised in the local market, giving multinationals and large enterprises operating in the international market competitive advantage.
However, the successful implementation of such projects by the Jamaican government at different levels faces two basic challenges, which are scarce financial resources and the lack of knowledge and skills in professionals involved in the corresponding projects (Schoburgh 2018). Mitchell (2016) notes that the educational system is only starting to adapt to the new paradigms and provide Jamaicans with the necessary educational services to grow people capable of managing programs based on the demand-driven approach. As mentioned above, the private sector is more flexible in this respect and more able to attract talent. Solé (2017) claims that close dialogue between the private and public sectors can be instrumental in finding synergy and development of successful programs for different industries. Some governmental initiatives reveal authorities’ interest in the matter and the opportunities for growth.
Technology Use in Business Operations in the Jamaican Context
Although it is largely accepted that the incorporation of technology in diverse operations is beneficial, technological advancements are not widely employed by Jamaican retailers. Johnson and Ruankaew (2017) explored the peculiarities of the inventory control in Jamaican small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) and found that the differences among companies were rather considerable, but some similar factors were identified. The most widely used strategies were inventory classification, forecasting, quality inspections, regular stock counts, and FIFO inventory movement.
The low level of automation of these processes is regarded as one of the barriers to better financial performance. The vast majority of SMEs are characterised by the utilisation of manual practices and limited use of technology, which makes them semi-automated (Johnson & Ruankaew 2017). The primary challenges to the use of technological advances include costs, current governmental regulations, lack of qualified personnel, and the successful adoption of the non-technological strategies by other organizations operating in similar industries.
At that, the Jamaican government introduces regulations and guides, encompassing the use of technology to facilitate diverse operations (Johnson & Ruankaew 2017). Certain funding is also provided in some sectors of the economy. However, the successful implementation of such projects can be hindered by certain factors related to inadequate funding, the lack of skills and knowledge among stakeholders, and cultural peculiarities (Ong’ayo, Onyango & Ochola 2016). People are reluctant to implement changes as they do not trust ICT innovations, as well as their government to a certain extent.
The lack of trust is also mentioned as one of the obstacles to successful technology implementation in the sphere of governmental procurement. Ahmad, Aljafari, and Venkatesh (2019) noted that the implementation of ICT (information and communication technologies) in governmental procurement management system had a favourable impact on the development of the economic environment in Jamaica. Although the project faced diverse issues and challenges related to the lack of resources and the lack of training (as well as some cultural peculiarities), the introduction of technologies in the public area is still apparent. The authors stated that the enhancement of transparency could have a positive effect on the project and further incorporation of technology in the public sphere. At that, Ahmad, Aljafari, and Venkatesh (2019) admitted that e-procurement influenced the countries’ legal landscape making it more appropriate for the adoption of innovations and ICT.
Minto-Coy and McNaughton (2016) are less optimistic as to the adoption of innovation and new technologies in the public sector due to a significant resistance this process is facing. Based on the incorporation of mobile technologies, the authors claim that the process of digitalisation and mobile technologies use is rather slow as people prefer more traditional ways of managing businesses or access public services. The resistance in the public sphere is similar to people’s reluctance to utilise innovative technologies in private contexts as well. Although corporations operating globally introduce technological advances that are often adopted by local companies, these novelties face various barriers on different levels.
Online advertising is becoming a common tool that is mainly utilised by large companies (Pineida 2020). Smaller organisations do not have sufficient resources to adopt this kind of technology in the Caribbean landscape. Importantly, online advertising is associated with access to a considerable bulk of data that should be a part of big data management, but Latin American companies do not utilise this information although multinationals operating in the region tend to use this advancement. One of the primary reasons for this disproportionate use is related to the availability of resources, as well as organisational culture.
Big Data Management
Diverse types of technologies and competencies are necessary for the effective adoption of the demand-driven approach. The identification of customers needs and proper demand forecasting are associated with the analysis of a significant bulk of information. Kumar, Shankar, and Aljohani (2019) claim that big data management is one of the central premises for the successful implementation of the demand-driven approach.
The concept of big data is comparatively new to business research and practice, but it has become one of the most “hyped terms” as well (Pal 2017). A substantial bulk of data has been accumulated during the past decades, and all this information provides insights into diverse aspects of business operation. A substantial bulk of empirical evidence suggests that there is a direct relationship between proper big data management and organisational performance. Hence, managers and decision-makers are eager to collect and analyse as many details and data bits as possible.
Product details, available roots, customer information, partner contacts, the history of interaction with different stakeholders, as well as customer’s preferences and everchanging attitudes are all relevant data that can influence the competitiveness and development of an organisation. It has been acknowledged that big data enable companies to innovate, set the learning organisation culture, and establish a competitive advantage (Santoro et al. 2019).
Big data include datasets collected by organisations, both intentionally and unintentionally on a daily basis (Aversa, Doherty & Hernandez 2018). The sources of data are also diverse and may include internal organisational sources (reports, warehouses, inventory data) and external (social media, customers’ orders, as well as Internet of Things). These external data sources are specifically valuable for the retail industry as they are instrumental in identifying demand.
Although big data has been a widely used term, several definitions exist. According to Pal (2017), the big data concept is often used interchangeably with such terms as data mining and business intelligence. However, although these notions are related, big data differs significantly. Big data can be defined as the bulk of information with “data volumes, number of transactions and the number of data sources… so huge that they need dedicated techniques and technical infrastructure to produce meaningful outcomes out of it” (Pal 2017, p. 4).
Ying et al. (2020) also focused on the necessity to use complex data analysis techniques and the volume of information to be analysed. In addition, the researchers emphasised that big data tended to involve diverse types of data, including but not confined to texts, videos, images, sounds, and numbers (Ying et al. 2020). In simple terms, the primary characteristic attributes of the big data concept are volume, variety, and speed, as well as value (Santoro et al. 2019). If one of these features is lacking an organisation is unlikely to make effective use of big data.
The attribute of value is worth close attention and has been discussed in detail in academia. The identification of the quality and value of information is one of the central functions within big data analysis (Pal 2017). Data quality is a multidimensional concept that encompasses numerous features such as the convenience of use, clarity, ingenuity, and size among the other. The quality of information is an important criterion that may affect the way data can be analysed and utilised.
Big data management (BDM) refers to “the warehousing of data, data integration, quality analysis, data governance, the arrangement of data content, the administration of database, and processing” (Ying et al. 2020, p. 2). Ying et al. (2020) also paid specific attention to an important component of BDM, which is related to ethical aspects. BDM is associated with ensuring data security and proper use that includes but is not confined to securing data confidentiality. BDM is now seen as an integral part of decision making that was previously based on guesswork rather than comprehensive analytics (Pal 2017).
Modern companies have a wide range of technological advances and sophisticated techniques to manage big data. However, organisations tend to have different access to such technologies, which may influence the quality of BDM, as well as the overall performance of these companies.
Big Data Management in the Jamaican Context
As mentioned above, technological advances have penetrated Jamaica, and big data management is becoming less exotic to diverse types of organisations. Traditionally, large companies and multinationals adopt such advancements rapidly, and smaller companies, as well as the public sector, follow. The adoption of big data management in the Jamaican context has a positive influence on the development of the country’s economy and business environment (McNaughton et al. 2017). Jamil, Brioñes-Peñalver, and García-Perez de Lema (2018) note that manufacturing companies in Latin America benefit from big data management by achieving higher performance and enhanced competitive advantage. Decisionmakers have an opportunity to consider diverse types of data, which facilitates the decision-making process.
For instance, the development of transportation roots, a range of products, marketing strategies, or supply chain elements becomes more effective based on the analysis of big data. At that, the researchers note that the lack of appropriate networks, insufficient use of technology in the countries in the Caribbean region prevent a rapid adoption of this approach (Jamil, Brioñes-Peñalver & García-Perez de Lema 2018). The primary obstacle to the complete integration of advanced technologies is the lack of resources, including but not confined to financial, labour force, and institutional.
It is noteworthy that many countries in the region, including Jamaica, try to create a favourable environment for the implementation of big data management approach. For instance, governments adopt this model and initiate programs facilitating the incorporation of big data management in the business landscape of the country (McNaughton et al. 2017). McNaughton et al. (2017) provide an analysis of the ways Jamaican customs agencies benefit from big data management. Although considerable investment is needed, the system becomes more efficient, which leads to a more appropriate business setting, where organisations are willing to adopt this approach and make decisions based on sound evidence.
Jamaican beverage manufacturing industry is developing at an unprecedented pace and is associated with such trends as limited use of technology, low-quality leadership, and ineffective management. The lack of resources has proved to be one of the primary factors preventing the rapid increase in the utilisation of technological advances. Johnson and Ruankaew (2017) also describe some cultural peculiarities that result in manufacturers’ reluctance to rely on technology in many aspects, including decision making. The large manufacturing company in the Caribbean under analysis is trying to address the challenges and use available opportunities to enhance the efficiency of its operations. Therefore, it is necessary to pay more attention to the effectiveness of big data management in order to improve the efficiency of operations.
The theoretical paradigm guiding this research is bounded rationality theory as this framework ensures the focus on the factors affecting decision-makers’ choices. The demand-driven approach is the central concept to this research since this technological model is currently utilised in diverse contexts and regarded as the most effective strategy to achieve a competitive advantage. The way managers at the company in question use this approach is central to this research.
Based on this review of the recent literature, it is possible to identify the most apparent gaps regarding the Jamaican beverage manufacturing industry. Although such central aspects as technology use, big data management, and decision-making models have been analysed, further investigation of these areas is needed. It is important to pay specific attention to the exact decision-making patterns stakeholders employ, and the way bounded rationality transforms made decisions.
Methodological limitations also exist as a considerable bulk of studies are reviews. Researchers also make calculations and apply economic models when analysing the peculiarities of the industry. However, stakeholders’ views and attitudes are not considered in detail, which confines the existing research to modelling rather than real-life trends analysis. Hence, the examination of decision-makers’ views on the matter will provide valuable insights and enrich the knowledge base concerning the Jamaican beverage manufacturing industry.
The theoretical framework employed in terms of this research is behavioural economics with the focus on the bounded rationality concept. This notion was introduced as a reaction to the rational choice theory that implies making rational decisions based on rational choices (Daft & Marcic 2016). Behavioural rationality is rooted in the assumption that people cannot make rational choices due to the limited capacity of their cognition. In simple terms, people cannot make rational choices as they cannot take into account all rational factors that can be linked to the issue. Therefore, people are bound to a limited set of alternatives they choose based on diverse factors.
This quantitative research will be based on the use of an online survey. Surveying is an appropriate data collection tool as it is instrumental in covering a large sample and identifying certain trends (Saunders, Thornhill & Lewis 2009). Survey Monkey will be utilised due to its convenience and accessibility. This survey instrument also ensures a high level of encryption that enhances the participants’ anonymity and confidentiality. The entire population of the company’s employees is 2200, with approximately 50 people in managerial roles, according to the latest report (2019 Annual Report 2019).
These employees tend to make decisions regarding the strategies to be utilised and the use of innovations and technologies, so their attitudes towards the matter are valuable. Therefore, this study will include approximately 50 people who will complete questionnaires containing seven-point Likert-scale questions, ranging from strongly agree to strongly disagree. Overall, the participants will answer 15 questions, addressing the utilisation of technology and demand-driven approach as well as demographic aspects. The questionnaires are based on the framework developed and validated by Chi, Huang, and George (2020).
The questionnaires will be developed for all participants irrespective of the post they occupy. Since the group of people who are knowledgeable on the matter is comparatively small, all employees performing the roles mentioned above will take part in the research.
In order to address the ethical aspects of the research, the corresponding permissions will be obtained from the university’s Ethics Approval, as well as the company’s management. Permissions will also be provided by each person who will take part in the research. They will sign written consent forms that will contain all the basic data regarding the purpose of the research, its objectives, and methods. Additionally, human resource professionals will be informed about the study, and the permission from the company’s management to conduct the research will also be received.
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