The global and local business environment has increasingly become competitive over the past few decades. This transformation presents a major challenge to organizations in the pursuit to become competitive in the marketplace. Effective management of people in the workplace is an integral element in organizations’ quest for competitiveness. It is critical for organizations’ managers to perceive their employees as a source of high organizational productivity. Successful organizations are focused at fostering a high level of commitment, cooperation, and satisfaction amongst their workforce. Findings of previous studies on people management emphasize the importance of implementing effective employee motivation.
One of the major challenges that organizations are currently facing relates to lack of competitiveness, which is increasingly becoming a motivational issue. Surviving in the 21st century requires firms’ management teams to invest in organizational development. Employee motivation, job satisfaction, collaboration, and performance are some of the core issues that organizational managers should take into account. Kelly Service Incorporation (2013) asserts that job satisfaction and employee motivation are critical elements in achieving organizational success.
These two aspects are determined by the nature of organizational culture adopted by a firm. Organizations can adopt different strategies in their quest to promote organizational success. First, the organization can select employees who have skills that fit the prevailing organizational culture.
Most organizations have implemented comprehensive reward systems in an effort to promote their employee performance. Good remuneration is one of the policies that have been widely used across organizations in an effort to enhance the workers’ performance, and thus the level of productivity. Over the past few years, employers have become cognizant of the role of human capital in enhancing their competitiveness and long-term success. The employees’ performance is critical not only in enhancing organizational growth, but also in determining the extent to which employees attain personal development. Subsequently, it is imperative for organizational managers to understand their employees’ performance in order to gain insight on how to improve performance through training (Vijay & Vazirani, 2011).
Organizational managers should be committed to nurturing a favorable working environment. According to Lamm and Meeks (2010), the workplace environment is comprised of three main sub-environments, which include the organizational, technical, and human environments. The technical environment relates to the infrastructure, equipment, and tools available in an organization. The organizational environment refers to the organizational values, philosophies, processes, procedures, and systems implemented by an organization. On the other hand, the human environment is composed of the teams, colleagues, interactions, management, working groups, and employees in an organization.
Lamm and Meeks (2010) are of the opinion that job “performance has become one of the significant indicators in managing organizational performance” (p. 613). Consequently, it is imperative for organizational managers to be focused at improving job performance. However, job performance may be subject to the workplace environment. Lamm and Meeks (2010) further assert that workplace “environment impacts the employees’ morale, productivity, and engagement both positively and negatively” (p. 615). In their pursuit to improve the workplace environment, it is critical for organizations to appreciate the importance of nurturing an attractive working environment.
Work related stress is one of the major factors that hinder the employees’ productivity. Colligan and Higgins (2005) assert that workplace stress is a psychological construct that organizational managers must take into account in their management practices. Different stressors affect employees in the workplace. For example, implementing change in organizations is one of the sources of stress in the work environment. Change in organizations presents employees with a high degree of uncertainty regarding their job security.
Over the past decades, organizations have focused on monetary and non-monetary rewards as a way of motivating their workforce. Some of the monetary methods of employee motivation that have continuously been utilized in organizations include ensuring that employees are compensated fairly and equitably. On the other hand, the non-monetary rewards that have been used across organizations include health benefits, annual leaves, paternity leaves, and employee recognition amongst others. Moreover, organizations have recognized the importance of integrating work and life balance in an effort to minimize stress in the workplace. This goal has been achieved through integration of various policies such as flexible working schedules (Lamm & Meeks, 2010).
Despite the implementation of the above policies, nurturing a favorable working environment is a challenging task due to the changing employees’ needs. In the 21st century, employees are increasingly appreciating the aspect of having fun in the workplace as a critical element that influences their level of motivation. In an effort to align with the changing employee needs, employers are increasingly incorporating the concept of fun at the work place.
The decision to adopt fun in the workplace arises from the need to nurture a strong organizational culture, which is a fundamental component in boosting the employees’ morale and motivation. Moreover, promoting an effective staff culture leads to the development of a strong relationship between the employer and employee. Furthermore, an effective organizational culture enhances the effectiveness with which an organization incorporates the concept of teamwork. Previous studies show that incorporating fun in the workplace plays a fundamental role in attracting and retaining human capital. Therefore, organizations attain the desired competitiveness in serving customers, which increases the likelihood of achieving a high level of customer satisfaction (Tews, Michel, & Bartlett, 2012).
Tews, Michel, and Bartlett (2012) add that integrating fun into the workplace enhances the level of creativity and problem solving and conflict resolution amongst employees. Moreover, fun in the workplace adds value to an organization’s operations by augmenting productivity and performance. In addition to employee productivity, fun in the workplace leads to the development of a high degree of organizational identification amongst employees. This assertion means that integrating fun into the workplace reduces the rate of employee turnover.
Despite its significance, most organizations have not developed a comprehensive understanding of the concept of fun in the workplace, which explains the slow rate of implementation. A number of challenges are associated with this approach. For example, employees can feel emotionally exhausted due to the initiative. Consequently, the process of implementing fun in the workplace should be implemented effectively in order to sustain the employees’ productivity, and hence the organization’s performance.
The purpose of this paper is to evaluate whether incorporating fun in the workplace can influence the employees’ motivation, job satisfaction, collaboration, and performance. The paper also explores how integrating fun into the workplace may increase the employees’ productivity and organizational performance. This study will be based on the hybrid research approach, which will entail integrating both qualitative and quantitative research designs. Primary methods of data collection will be adopted in order to gather sufficient data from the field. Questionnaires will be used as the core data-collection instruments. The questionnaires will reflect on the employees’ motivation, job satisfaction, collaboration, and performance.
A sample of 10 respondents, which will be comprised of employees and managers, will be selected. Simple random sampling technique will be incorporated in selecting the research participants. One the other hand, the questionnaires will be administered to the respondents through email in order to minimize the cost of the study. It is expected that the findings of the study will provide transferable results and have significant theoretical implications to promote further research in the field of fun in workplace.
This study entails assessing the impact of fun on the employees’ motivation, job satisfaction, collaboration, and performance. In a bid to attain the purpose, a number of research questions will guide this study as outlined below.
- In what ways does integrating fun into the workplace promote the level of employee motivation?
- What impact does adopting fun in the workplace have on the employees’ performance?
- In what ways can adopting fun in the workplace foster collaboration amongst employees?
- What is the relationship between fun in the workplace and the level of job satisfaction amongst employees?
In line with above research questions, this paper aim at testing the null and the alternative hypothesis as illustrated below. Findings of the study will either confirm or refute the null hypothesis.
- H10; Incorporating fun in the workplace has a significant impact on the employees’ motivation.
- H11: Incorporating fun in the workplace does not have any impact on the employees’ motivation.
- H20: There is a positive relationship between fun in the workplace and the employees’ performance.
- H21: Fun in the workplace is not related to the employees’ performance.
- H30: Adopting fun as a strategic approach in managing people in the workplace fosters collaboration amongst employees.
- H31: Fun in the workplace does not influence the level of collaboration amongst employees.
- H40: Fun in the workplace is positively correlated to the level of job satisfaction amongst employees.
- H41: Fun in the workplace is not related to the level of job satisfaction.
Definition of key terms
This research is based on a number of concepts, which are critical in developing a strong organizational performance. The definition of some of the terms used is outlined below.
- Stress; stress is more than a psychological construct. According to Naqvi, Khan, Kant, and Khan (2013), stress refers to an interaction between individuals and the source of demands within their environment. In most cases, stress occurs if the conditions facing an individual exceed his or her ability to cope with the demands, which affects the individual’s psychological equilibrium. Additionally, stress has positive correlation with an individual’s physiological response. Moreover, the ability to deal with stressor is influenced by the resources available to the individual. Stress has adverse impact on an individuals’ performance. However, the impact of stress varies from one individual to another.
- Fun: Cann, Watson, and Bridgewater (2014) are of the opinion that fun is associated with humor, which is an effective stress coping mechanism. Fun may be comprised of different aspects such as playfulness, laughter, and humor. However, these elements are not critical in creating fun.
- Workplace fun: Georganta (2013) argues that workplace fun entails “an environment that intentionally encourages, initiates, and supports a variety of enjoyable and pleasurable activities” (p. 41). Some of these activities include participating in parties and organizing sports competition. Alternatively, scholars have defined workplace fun to include the recreational, interpersonal, social, and playful activities that are organized with the objective of creating a sense of amusement, pleasure, and enjoyment amongst employees.
- Job satisfaction: job satisfaction is one of the most important elements that organizations’ management teams take into account in fostering strong organizational behavior. According to Gupta, Kumar, and Singh (2014), job satisfaction refers to the positive and pleasurable emotional feeling that emanates from an individual’s job experience. Job satisfaction is associated with the employees’ perception. This aspect means that job satisfaction is achieved if the employees achieve the issues that they consider most important in their view. Thus, job satisfaction can be described as an emotional response to the prevailing job situation, which means that it is an intangible aspect and can only be inferred. Fleming (2005) further argues that the level of job satisfaction is greatly influenced by the extent to which the employees’ expectations are met and exceeded.
- Job performance: Gupta, Kumar, and Singh (2014) define job performance as “all the behaviors employees engage in while at work” (p. 4). However, one of the most effective definitions of job performance refers to the effectiveness with which an employee executes the duties and tasks assigned. Different dimensions have been formulated in an effort to define job performance. One of the dimensions asserts that job performance can be gauged using outcomes. The second dimension emphasizes that job performance can be gauged based on the employees’ personal traits and behavior.
- Productivity: According to Naqvi et al. (2013), productivity refers to the ratio of output to inputs. Alternatively, Naqvi et al. (2013) define productivity as “the real output per unit of labor” (p. 527). Productivity is used in gauging the effectiveness with which an organization’s resources such as human and financial capital are used in its quest to attain the predetermined organizational goals. Naqvi et al. (2013) contend that productivity is a critical component in influencing an organization’s competitiveness and growth. Measuring productivity is one of the most effective ways through which an organization can assess its capacity utilization. One can assert that employees’ productivity can only be achieved if their quality of work and the goods and services meet and exceed the set standards.
- Motivation; Naqvi et al. (2013) define motivation as the inner force that stimulates individuals to pursue and accomplish predetermined organizational and personal goals.
- Work-life balance; the concept of work-life balance is comprised of three main components, which include satisfaction balance, time balance, and involvement balance. Satisfaction balance refers to the extent to which employees attain balance both in the workplace and in home environment. On the other hand, involvement balance refers to the extent to which employees achieve psychological involvement in a firm’s operations, while time balance refers to the extent to which an organization appreciates the importance of balancing the time available for employees to undertake their family and work roles.
The workplace environment is one of the most important issues that organizations should consider in their quest to achieve a competitive advantage. However, the effectiveness with which organizations develop a favorable environment for working is subject to the extent to which the organizational managers understand the workplace. In a bid to understand the work environment, it is essential for organizational managers to integrate the environment-behavior model. This study will adopt the environment-behavior model as the core theoretical framework. The framework is comprised of six main components, which include the worker characteristics, psychological processes, work policies, outcomes, physical work setting, and worker-environment interaction. The chart below illustrates the environment-behavior model.
According to this model, work-environment interaction is subject to the physical worker characteristics, the management style adopted, and the work setting. According to the environment-behavior model, the worker-environment component can best be described as fun in the workplace. According to this model, integrating fun into the workplace enhances the level of creativity amongst employees, which is in line with the componential theory of creativity. According to this theory, fun in the workplace influences the level of creativity, intrinsic motivation, and expertise amongst employees (Miller, 2005). The theory further postulates that employee creativity is subject to three main aspects, which include
- The domain relevant skills- The employees’ expertise
- Creativity relevant skills – the extent to which employees can apply their personality and novel thinking
- Task motivation
The task motivation component is concerned with the level of intrinsic motivation amongst employees to execute the task assigned, appreciate personal challenges, and to enjoy undertaking their duties and responsibilities (Pike, 2014). According to the componential theory of creativity, employees are creative if they are intrinsically motivated. Moreover, the theory argues that it is imperative for organizational managers to be concerned with nurturing a favorable work environment in order to foster creativity (Amabile, 2012).
The concept of integrating fun into the workplace can be traced back to the dot-com era in the Silicon Valley. Firms within the Silicon Valley started integrating fun as one of their corporate culture elements. Employees started changing their workplace environment in an effort to cope with the long working hours. The concept of integrating fun into the workplace has gained relevance over the past few decades. According to Amabile (2012), employers are integrating fun into the workplace in an effort to enhance their employees’ morale, increase the rate of employee retention, and improve their firms’ public image.
The increased integration of fun into the workplace is also associated with the dynamic nature of the labor market (Jordan-Evans & Kaye, 2012). The emergence of the information era has led to the growth of a new generation of workforce, which is attaching preference to flexibility in the workplace. Moreover, the contemporary employees are not only focused on monetary gains of employment, but they also perceive work as a way of self-expression, which explains the high rate at which they are increasingly appreciating fun. A study conducted by William M. Mercer Incorporation shows that organizations are appreciating the concept of fun in the process of formulating work policies (Miller, 2005).
According to the Componential theory of creativity, all individuals have the capacity to be creative in the work environment (Miller, 2005). Furthermore, the theory argues that creativity is dependent on the level of intrinsic task motivation, creative thinking skills, and expertise. Moreover, previous studies show that exposing employees to fun in the workplace increases their creativity (Miller, 2005).
The labor market has undergone remarkable changes over the past three decades because of the high rate of generational change. The emergence of generation Y has presented organizations with a major challenge in their pursuit for competitive advantage. Generation Y is more concerned with achieving a high level of flexibility as compared to previous generations. Generation Y is highly technologically oriented and it appreciates diversity (Choi, Kwon & Kim, 2011).
In addition to the above workers’ characteristics, generation Y has high expectations and it is increasingly seeking meaning of its work (Rau-Foster, 2013). Subsequently, this generation of employees is concerned with developing its career and nurturing a strong long-term relationship within the workplace. In addition to these characteristics, the new generation of employees is team-oriented, fun loving, and flexible. In order to survive in such an environment, it is imperative for organizations to adjust their operations continuously. Human resource managers have a challenge of ensuring that their organizations attract and retain human capital in order to remain competitive. This aspect demands the incorporation of effective strategic human resource management practices.
Workplace fun and employee motivation
Employees’ motivation determines the degree to which workers are committed at executing their duties. Motivational theorists contend that the need arises from the individuals’ psychological and physiological deficiencies (Everett, 2011). Thus, it is essential for organizational managers to take into account their employees’ physiological and psychological needs. In order to improve employees’ motivation, it is essential for organizational managers to understand their perception about different aspects related to work. Moreover, it is fundamental for managers to assess the extent to which satisfaction amongst employees is influenced by non-work-related attributes (Decker, Calo & Yao, 2009).
Lee (2013) contends that employees have different perceptions about the work environment. According to his study on the hotel industry, Lee (2013) argues that organizational managers should assess the extent to which work-related attributes impact employees’ satisfaction. The analysis should aim at identifying the difference between the level of employees’ satisfaction and the prevailing work-related attributes.
Lee (2013) emphasizes that employees may have divergent views on the concept of fun in the workplace. Some employees may be of the view that working hours should be dedicated solely to work related issues. One the other hand, some of the employees may perceive fun as being complementary to work. This aspect means that some employees may perceive workplace fun as an impediment towards organizational performance by fostering teamwork, while others may view it as an impediment to work processes.
Fun in the workplace is one of the aspects that organizational managers should take into account in their quest to foster a high degree of employee satisfaction. Tews, Michel, and Bartlett (2012) assert that fun can be classified into two main categories, which include the intangible and the tangible fun. Tangible fun is comprised of actual fun activities such as indoor games like indoor golf and ping-pong that employees can engage in during their recess. On the other hand, intangible fun relates to feelings and affection that emanate from the organization environment.
Empirical evidence available shows that integrating humor into the workplace is critical in creating workplace fun (Newstrom, 2010). Furthermore, findings of another study conducted on the impact of humor on the effectiveness of operation of individuals in the health sector showed that there is a strong positive correlation between workplace humor and job satisfaction (Newstrom, 2010). Ninety two percent (92%) of the nurses interviewed were of the opinion that humor reduces stress amongst employees (Newstrom, 2010). Findings of previous studies also show that integrating fun into the workplace leads to the establishment of a strong relationship between the top and the low levels of management (Cann, Watson, & Bridgewater, 2014).
Adopting humor as one of the workplace fun strategies facilitates group processes. This assertion means that employees are in a position to relate with each other effectively and efficiently. Therefore, their ability to deal with work-related problems and stressful situations in the workplace improves remarkably. Despite the effectiveness of humor in improving organizational relationship by fostering the relationship between employees, the empirical evidence available on the effectiveness of humor in promoting collaboration amongst employees is limited. The available evidence is based on observation. Furthermore, the studies have only focused on the positive side of humor in the workplace, thus ignoring its negative effects (Cann, Watson, & Bridgewater, 2014).
Work environment and job satisfaction
According to Gupta, Kumar, and Singh (2014), low level of job satisfaction increases the rate of absenteeism, high employee turnover, and diminishing employee morale. The level of job satisfaction in the workplace can be assessed by taking into account various work-related behaviors for example the rate of absenteeism, level of employee commitment in their work, and employee retention.
The degree of commitment and loyalty amongst satisfied employees is higher as compared to their disgruntled counterparts (Fineman, 2006).
Gupta, Kumar, and Singh (2014) are of the opinion that organizations should consider the possibility of developing workplace spirituality. The concept of spirituality in the workplace is mainly concerned with nurturing a sense of togetherness, collaboration, and magnetism amongst employees. Furthermore, the concept of workplace spirituality emphasizes on the importance of ensuring that employees achieve meaning in their work in addition to establishing a high degree of unity amongst the various organizational department. Thus, the concept of workplace spirituality underscores the importance of establishing a favorable working environment (Gupta, Kumar & Singh, 2014).
The indoor working environment is a fundamental component in managers’ effort to improve the employees’ job satisfaction. The internal organizational environment is directly related with the level of work related stress and job satisfaction (Leblebici, 2012).
Job satisfaction is influenced by the extent to which employees experience enjoyable working environment. Proponents of workplace fun contend that employees become motivated and energized if fun is incorporated in the work environment. Findings of previous studies show that fun leads to the development of positive moods amongst employees, which has a spillover effect towards colleagues in the workplace. These findings illustrate that there is a strong and positive relationship between job satisfaction and fun (Choi, Kwon & Kim, 2011). Fun in the workplace leads to a significant reduction in burnout levels amongst employees, and this aspect increases the level of job satisfaction.
Most employers are under the illusion that the employees’ compensation package is equivalent to their level of performance. Despite the view that monetary compensation is an effective extrinsic employee motivation tool, its effectiveness in sustaining the employees’ long term performance is limited, which underscores the importance of organizational managers adjusting their operations in order to align with the dynamic business environment (Leblebici, 2012).
Considering the changes in the global labor market, the organizations’ ability to achieve long-term success is greatly influenced by the extent to which they develop a favorable working environment. Leblebici (2012) argues that the quality of workplace environment influences an organization’s ability to attract and retain strong human capital. Leblebici (2012) further emphasizes that convenient “workplace conditions are requirements for improving productivity and quality of outcomes” (p. 38).
The available literature shows that the prevailing working conditions influences the employees’ health and safety, and hence their productivity. In the contemporary business environment, employees are increasingly associating their organizational identification with the quality of the working environment. Lack of an environment conducive for working reduces the level of employee engagement in executing their duties.
Leblebici (2012) is of the opinion that occupational health diseases increase the rate of absenteeism amongst employees. Under such circumstances, the organization may be forced to lay-off some of its workforce, which means that the rate of employee turnover is increased. Consequently, the overall organizational performance is affected adversely. Improving the work environment leads to a remarkable reduction in the rate of absenteeism and complaints, hence enhancing employee productivity.
In their pursuit for competitiveness during the 21st century, there is a high probability that employers will adopt more strategic approach in order to improve their employees’ productivity. This goal can be achieved by integrating fun. Decker (2012) asserts that making “work more like play increases learning and mastery of the job” (p. 1).
Criticisms of fun in the workplace
Despite the positive contribution of fun in the workplace, it is critical for firm’s management teams to ensure that only positive fun is used. This assertion arises from the view that humor may adversely affect the employees’ perception regarding the workplace, and hence their performance. Decker (2012) is of the opinion that some employees may perceive being told when to have fun as a way of demeaning them. Moreover, Decker (2012) argues that some “employees perceive fun atmosphere as an opportunity to goof off more than management desires them to” (p. 1).
Despite the view that goofing off reduces boredom, employees’ conflict, and increases work enthusiasm, Decker, Calo, and Yao (2011) argue that enhancing fun in the workplace by encouraging the goofing off behavior has negative consequences. For example, goofing off might create the perception among managers that subordinates engage in activities that amount to a waste of time in activities that are not related to their core function in an organization. Findings of a study conducted on Turkish employees showed that most employees perceive a culture of fun in the workplace being inconsistent with the dictates of professionalism (Decker, Calo, & Yao, 2011).
The effectiveness with which organizations implement fun in the workplace successfully may be affected by different factors. One of these factors relates to the divergent personalities amongst the employees. Therefore, fun will lead to high productivity and job satisfaction amongst employees who attach much value to the concept of workplace fun (Everett, 2011). If not well implemented, fun in the workplace may be applied negatively. For example, some individuals may use fun as a way of exerting power over their colleagues. Secondly, some employees may use fun to convey their disappointment with the workplace. Such practices may affect other employees adversely, hence making the organization dysfunctional.
In a bid to be successful in implementing the concept of humor in the workplace, it is imperative for organizational managers to ensure that the humor applied is positively correlated with the work setting (Cann, Watson, & Bridgewater, 2014).
The modern business environment is undergoing a high rate of evolution, which might affect organization’s long-term existence. Subsequently, it is imperative for organizational managers to adjust their managerial practices continuously. One of the sources of change relates to the labor market, which has undergone remarkable evolution due to different macro environmental forces. Some of the forces that have precipitated change in the labor market relate to the high rate of generational change, emergence of the information age due to developments in information communication technology, and economic changes.
Currently, employees are demanding a high level of flexibility in their workplace. Moreover, employees are increasingly considering their employment as a source of contentment. Despite the aforementioned changes in human capital, organizations are under pressure from different stakeholders such as shareholders and employees to achieve business excellence. Thus, the significance of organizational managers ensuring their firms’ operations are aligned with the dynamic business environment cannot be underestimated.
One of the most effective strategies that organizational managers can adopt in their quest to improve their competitiveness is by improving the level of employee motivation, collaboration, job satisfaction, performance, and productivity. Numerous studies have emphasized the importance of taking into account intrinsic and extrinsic sources of employee motivation. This aspect led to the formulation of different monetary and non-monetary employee reward systems.
Despite this aspect, previous studies have not emphasized the role of fun in the workplace as an intrinsic source of employee motivation. Findings of some of the studies on workplace environment conducted shows integrating fun into the workplace leads to improvement in the employees’ performance. Furthermore, fun in the workplace increases the degree of organizational identification amongst employees. Integrating fun into the workplace ensures that employees interact with each other. Therefore, the likelihood of information and knowledge sharing amongst employees in different departments is improved significantly. Consequently, one can argue that adopting fun as a strategic human resource management practice in the workplace can minimize the rate of employee turnover.
The objective of this study is to evaluate how fun can increase job satisfaction, employees’ performance, productivity, and collaboration. The study will focus at achieving a high degree of reliability and validity. The credibility of the study will be maintained by ensuring that the findings are logical. This goal will be achieved by adopting an effective research design, which will be comprised of the mixed research design. The mixed/hybrid research design will entail adopting both qualitative and quantitative research methods. The rationale for adopting the mixed research design arises from the need to improve the quality of the study.
First, qualitative research design will enable the researcher to gather sufficient data from the field, hence increasing the likelihood of making credible findings. Using qualitative research design will increase the likelihood of gathering relevant data. This assertion arises from the view that the researcher will gather data from the natural settings. The study will be conducted by evaluating the concept of fun in the real work environment. This move will aid in gaining first-hand information on the employees and employers’ experience on the concept of workplace fun.
One the other hand, quantitative research design will aid in condensing the data obtained from the field. Through quantitative research design, the researcher will be in a position to explain the research findings using statistics. Furthermore, it will be possible for the researcher to analyze the data statistically. Therefore, the researcher will be in a position to condense the qualitative research findings and at the same time present a clear picture of the research findings.
In order to improve the relevance of the study, a sufficient amount of data on workplace fun will be collected. This goal will be achieved by gathering data from employees of different and well-established organizations. The decision to target employees in well-established organizations as the target population arises from the view that they are conversant with the concept of workplace fun. However, it will be impossible to include all the employees from the target population in the study due to resource constraints. Consequently, a sample of 100 employees will be selected from the target organization. The respondents will be selected using simple random sampling technique.
The simple random sampling technique will ensure that all the potential employees in the target population have an equal chance of being selected as research participants. Furthermore, simple random sampling technique will make the research process manageable. Thus, the simple random sampling technique will aid in eliminating bias hence increasing the likelihood of conducting a thorough study.
Easterby-Smith, Thorpe, and Jackson (2008) argue that simple “random sampling technique is used to make a confident statement, having involved different categories of employees” (p. 213). It will be assumed that the response obtained from the field will reflect the prevailing perception of the concept of workplace fun in improving employees’ motivation, performance, job satisfaction, productivity, and collaboration.
The credibility, validity, and relevance of the study will be influenced by the effectiveness with which data is collected from the field. This study will mainly rely on primary sources of data. Primary data will be obtained by soliciting the respondents’ views on the relationship between workplace fun and employee collaboration, job satisfaction, productivity, and performance. In order to gather sufficient research data, primary data will be obtained using questionnaires as the core data-collection instruments.
The questionnaires will be open-ended in order to provide employees with an opportunity to explain their views on the questions asked. Using open-ended questionnaires will aid in eliminating the likelihood of directing the respondents to answer in a predetermined manner. Thus, the likelihood of enriching the study findings will be increased.
In order to minimize the cost of conducting the study, the research questions will be administered to the selected respondents through emails. However, the researcher will ensure that a comprehensive review of the questionnaires is conducted in order to eliminate grammatical errors and ambiguity. Consequently, the likelihood of increasing the rate of response from the selected respondents will be increased.
The researcher will observe high ethical standards in the process of conducting the study. The rationale of integrating ethical standards arises from the need to ensure that the study is successfully completed. Furthermore, observing ethical standards will increase the likelihood of sustaining the selected respondents through the research process. First, the researcher will seek the consent of the research participants prior to conducting the study.
Furthermore, informed consent will be obtained by seeking permission from the relevant authorities. This goal will be achieved by informing the research participants of the purpose of the study, which will eliminate suspicion. Secondly, the researcher will ensure that the anonymity of the respondents is maintained. This goal will be achieved by concealing the respondents’ confidential information. Such assurance will increase the likelihood of the selected participants participating in the study.
In addition to the above considerations, the researcher will provide the selected respondents with the discretion of continuing or pulling out of the study without any repercussions. This aspect means that the selected research participants will not be coerced to be research respondents.
Operational definition of variables
In the process of conducting this study, the researcher will adopt different instruments. One of these instruments includes the Likert scale, which will be used in assessing the employees’ perception on different research variables such as job performance, level of productivity, job satisfaction, commitment, and job performance. Subsequently, the Likert scale will aid in condensing the research participants opinion through the questionnaire.
The respondents’ response will be rated using a 5-point scale. Each of the point will signify the respondent’s opinion regarding the issue under evaluation. The rating scale will be based on the research questions considered in the study as illustrated below –
- To what extent do you consider integrating fun in the workplace promotes the level of employee motivation?
- Very effective= 5
- No relationship=1
- The opinion of the respondents on the relevance of workplace fun towards employee performance will be assessed using the following scale.
- Very relevant=5
- Quite relevant= 4
- No relationship=2
- Completely irrelevant=1.
- Similarly, the impact of workplace fun on employees’ collaboration will be assessed based on the following variable.
- Strongly and positively impacts collaboration=5
- Marginally impacts collaboration=4
- Negatively impacts collaboration=3
- No impact on collaboration=2
- Strongly and negatively impacts collaboration =1
- The final analysis will entail assessing the relationship between fun in the workplace and the level of job satisfaction amongst employees. The response to this question will be assessed using the following dimensions.
- Most of the time=4
The respondent’s personal data will be categorized using their age, occupation, level of management, and gender. In order to condense the data, ranges will be used with regard to age. On the other hand, the respondents will be categorized as either male or female. On the other hand, their level of management will be considered as either top level of management, middle level of management, and lower level of management.
In order to test the research hypothesis effectively, a comprehensive analysis of the data collected will be conducted. This goal will be achieved by incorporating effective data analysis techniques. The data collected will be analyzed using Microsoft Excel. Each of the research hypotheses considered in the study will be analyzed individually. This aspect will ensure that all the research variables are considered. Additionally, using Microsoft Excel will aid in condensing the research findings. For example, the voluminous qualitative data collected will be condensed using graphs, charts, tables, percentages, and frequencies. Therefore, presentation of the data collected will be improved remarkably. Condensing the data using Microsoft Excel will improve the ease with which the target stakeholders understand the research findings.
This chapter illustrates the research methodology that will be followed in conducting the study. The entire research process will focus on illustrating how incorporating fun in the workplace can enhance employee commitment, job satisfaction, productivity, employees’ performance, and motivation. This goal will be achieved by conducting a comprehensive analysis on the concept of workplace fun. Mixed research design will be integrated in order to gather sufficient data from the field. This goal will be achieved by adopting both qualitative and quantitative research designs. Qualitative research design will enable the researcher to gather credible data. On the other hand, quantitative research design will aid in ensuring that the data collected from the market is presented and analyzed effectively and efficiently.
The study will utilize primary sources of data in order to gather data from the natural settings. Questionnaires will be used as the primary data collection instruments. The questionnaires will be designed effectively in order to eliminate ambiguity. Subsequently, the credibility and reliability of the study findings will be improved. The study will consider Wal-Mart’s employees as the target population. However, the respondents will be selected using simple random sampling technique.
My decision to pursue the PhD program in Business Psychology arises from two main goals. One of the goals entails developing new knowledge on how fun in the workplace contributes to long-term organizational performance. The second goal entails providing practitioners with knowledge on how to apply the concept of fun in managing people in the workplace. The decision to achieve these goals has arisen from the recognition of the high rate at which the labor market is changing. For example, employees are increasingly demanding a high level of flexibility in an effort to attain work-life balance.
Despite the changes in the labor market, most organizations around the world have not appreciated the importance of improving their people management practices, which is evidenced by the high rate at which organizations are relying on extrinsic sources of employee motivation such as monetary rewards. However, the likelihood of developing a high degree of organizational identification amongst employees solely based on extrinsic sources of motivation is limited. On the other hand, the intrinsic sources of employee motivation are not adequate, which is evidenced by the high rate at which employees are seeking for better jobs.
In a bid to become a successful organizational manager in such an environment, it is imperative for one to possess relevant expertise. Pursuing a PhD program in business psychology will lead to the development of expertise on how to manage employees. For example, I will be in a position to appreciate the importance of improving intrinsic sources of employee motivation amongst employee in my employee management practices. This goal will be achieved by developing a theory on the relationship amongst employee motivation, level of job satisfaction, performance, productivity, and fun in the workplace. The theory will highlight how adopting different workplace fun activities can lead to an improvement in the working environment.
In order to develop the new theory on workplace fun successfully, the PhD program in business psychology will also provide me with great insight on the prevailing gaps with regard to human resource management practices. This goal will be achieved by reviewing available literature on how organizations are adjusting their human resource management practices in order to foster organizational identification. Through such reviews, I will be in a position to identify the existing gaps. Subsequently, I will be able to improve on the new theory by taking into account the existing research gaps.
Furthermore, I will be in a position to provide organizational managers with expertise on how they can implement the concept of fun in their work environment effectively. Subsequently, organizational managers will be in a position to improve their workplace conditions, hence increasing the degree of organizational identification amongst their workforce. The theory will illustrate the most effective strategies that organizational managers should follow in their pursuit to implement fun in the workplace. Subsequently, the employees will be in a position to minimize the negative consequences associated with workplace fun such as use of fun to express authority over colleagues.
Ineffective application of fun in the workplace may reduce the employees’ morale, job satisfaction, and perception regarding their workplace. Such issues might affect an organization’s long-term success. Therefore, acquiring a PhD in Business Psychology will improve the effectiveness with which I offer expert advice on how to avoid the pitfalls associated with fun in the workplace. In summary, it is my opinion that the study will be of great contribution to my personal development in addition to improvement in human resource management practices.
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