World Vision Mozambique Organization Review

Subject: Case Studies
Pages: 55
Words: 13473
Reading time:
47 min
Study level: PhD

Introduction

Human resource management (HRM) is a relatively new concept that has enabled organizations to control their performance through the effective management of employees. Organizations have globally adopted this concept as a central part of their operations with the aim being to influence staffing and performance at their respective institutions. Ownership and management determine the type of organization. The two elements also affect the type of organization that interested people wish to create. The concept of human resource management has affected the performance of dozens of organizations. Non-governmental organizations have not been spared.

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NGOs are special types of organizations that deliver special goods or services to a population in a manner that is parallel to that of government institutions. These organizations have a workforce that is similar to any other type of organization, despite them working under different terms of service. According to Youngwan (2011), the organizational structure that is adopted by any society or organization influences the HRM practices. The performance of employees together with that of their organization is affected by the HRM practices that the organization adopts. Organizations must frequently assess their human resource practices to change how they (practices) affect the organizational output. Some of the ways that this goal may be realized include the reassessment of the goals and objectives of the HRM policies in place.

Non-governmental organizations have an operational structure that is a bit different from that of conventional organizations. This uniqueness predisposes them to a set of challenges that differ from those that conventional organizations face. Some of these challenges are in the area of human resources and staffing. NGOs also frequently work in environments that might often be a challenge for conventional organizations. This work atmosphere compounds NGOs’ human resource problems and challenges. Many NGOs are involved in the provision of basic services to the general population, including those that the government cannot provide. Most of the NGOs are non-profit organizations, with their funding coming from different sources that are unreliable at times (Youngwan, 2011).

An example of an NGO that has the characteristic features and challenges of other NGOs is World Vision Mozambique (WVM). Appendix 1 shows the various missions that the organization has been able to accomplish in Mozambique in 2013. This organization has outstanding human resource challenges, in addition to the common problems experienced by other organizations that operate in Mozambique. The main challenges include recruiting and retaining highly qualified staff, dealing with the local culture that has infiltrated the organizational setting, and the issue of employee turnover at the organization. Few studies have been conducted on the role of human resource management on NGOs, with none being carried out in World Vision Mozambique.

The recruitment process in NGOs is a challenging one. The available staff members prefer other types of organizations that have better employment terms. Therefore, the recruitment process in most NGOs is a continuous process. Most of the recruited employees have varying reasons for their preferences of these types of organizations. Quality, training, and experience of employees in any particular organization determine in part how the organization performs in the sector and industry in which it operates. NGOs often have a challenge in recruiting experienced and high-standard employees without a high turnover. Most of these organizations often face the challenge of frequent crises, with some employees preferring to work in other organizations that have limited challenges. Some of these challenges include harsh working conditions, for example working in war-prone areas, drought situations, and a poor working environment that has no clean water for use by Mozambique citizens.

Organizational culture varies from one place to another based on different factors within the society where the organization is located. Just like most other contemporary organizations, NGOs operate on a global platform. Thus, they consist of many foreigners. This observation is also a challenge for these forms of organizations, as local and foreign workers interact in the places of work. The culture of WVM depends on its employees and management. Issues of diversity emerge so strongly in this organization. WVM’s mission is to eliminate poverty and injustice among people of diverse races, religions, sex, age, color, and geographical location, cultural diversity issues still arise. WVM is supposed to work with the locals who differ to the extent of getting into armed conflicts. In a bid to entrench peace, justice, and harmony among warring and devastated people, employees must work with them. This situation becomes an HRM challenge since some of these employees, volunteers, and community workers are maimed, disabled, orphaned, widowed, and distressed. In response to these challenges, HRM officers respond by employing various strategies such as induction, training, rewards, and recognition, and compensation. Hence, based on these issues, this paper explores the challenges of human resources in NGOs using World Vision Mozambique as a case study.

Title

The title that is selected for this thesis was a result of the personal experiences with non-governmental organizations, especially World Vision Mozambique that is under discussion. Any thesis title should be relevant to the problem under discussion, and hence the choice of the title that is selected for this particular thesis. The problem that the thesis attempts to offer a solution to is captured in the thesis title. The title of this thesis paper is, ‘The Challenges of Human Resource in Non-Governmental Organization- A Case Study of World Vision Mozambique.’

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Problem Statement

In any thesis, the main driver is the problem that the author establishes in the particular area of focus. This drive allows the researcher to focus on an area and provide recommendations on how it may be altered for improvement. To accomplish this goal, the author of the thesis should ensure that he or she stays on the relevant problem while offering solutions to the problem.

In this particular proposed thesis, the focus is on non-governmental organizations, with special consideration of the challenges that they face in the area of human resources. The case example provided in this paper is World Vision Mozambique, which is an illustration of an NGO that faces human resource challenges. The problem that will be addressed by this thesis is the increased employee dissatisfaction in World Vision Mozambique. This problem is manifested in various HRM indicators such as increased turnover, low job commitment, increased interpersonal conflicts, and inefficiency. The main inspiration for the thesis is the over-one-decade personal experience at World Vision Mozambique, which provided exposure to the problems and challenges that are discussed herein. In this organization, the human resource department has been facing major challenges. The NGO has a high employee turnover rate, with dissatisfaction, being reported in many of the organizational sectors. This organization also faces a host of other problems that are not unique to this of the organization. They are some of the motivators for the thesis. This thesis recreates these problems and establishes the best ways of offering a lasting solution to them.

Nwaiwu (2013), states that NGOs have a special environment in which they operate. This atmosphere is influenced by a different set of macro-and micro-economic factors. For one to understand the scope of the problem, it is important to put the definition of NGOs into focus. These organizations are involved in humanitarian efforts, with their operations serving to benefit civilization. These organizations are mainly not profit-oriented. This aspect often serves as its main difference from other organizations. Interested nations or other organizations also fund them. However, governments are not involved in the direct operations of these organizations.

Regarding the definition of non-governmental organizations, the key driver for employees is not catered for, and hence the challenges faced by these types of organizations in human resources. Working in an international front also ensures that NGOs face the challenge of diversity among employees, with the culture created often contributing to the variety of problems in these organizations (Goodhand, & Chamberlain, 1996). The problem of negative diversity in the workplace is a common one at World Vision Mozambique, with the organization consisting of a significantly high proportion of expatriate workers.

The challenges in WVN and other NGOs are compounded by the financing difficulties that these organizations face. Most NGOs rely on international bodies and other authorities for funding, with donor societies offering a significant proportion of financial resources for these organizations (Goodhand, & Chamberlain, 1996). This funding for NGOs is often not enough, a situation that prompts them to use a variety of methods to retain their staff while at the same time remaining viable within their area of operation. One way of limiting the funds is through the recruitment of a work team that is not as qualified as that of other organizations (Goodhand, & Chamberlain, 1996). The financial problems also present a challenge for these organizations in that they keep losing their staff members to other established profit-based organizations.

Most non-governmental organizations often recruit employees that are fresh from training. These workers are said to be less experienced, and hence not preferred by other organizations. These organizations later lose the employees to their counterparts in the profit industry, with the result being a high employee turnover. Some researchers have even considered NGOs ‘training grounds’ for professionalism, with the trained and experienced employees being snatched by the profit-making organizations (Campbell, & Stilwell, 2008). Such trained employees leave the NGOs in search of greener pastures in other organizations, which are thought to offer more permanent terms and better employee salaries and wages. According to Campbell and Stilwell (2008), these employees also leave NGOs to work for government posts that have better working conditions and pensions.

Motivation is a key driver of employee performance. Any organization that aims to influence employee output often implements different motivational strategies. Profit-making organizations have perfected in this area to attract well-trained and highly experienced employees (Campbell, & Stilwell, 2008). On the other hand, NGOs rank poorly in the use of motivational strategies. However, individual employees have different motivational factors, which are affected by the personality of the individual and the factors that directly affect these individuals. Intrinsic motivational factors are as important in motivating employees as external motivational factors such as salaries and wages.

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Poor motivation in the NGOs also results from the job security that these organizational forms offer to their employees. NGOs are often associated with poor employee job security majorly due to the working conditions and sources of financing (Campbell, & Stilwell, 2008). Private and public institutions that have different structures from those present in NGOs offer better job employee security within any sector. Most of the challenges that are mentioned above are present in the case of World Vision Mozambique, which is an ideal non-governmental organization. This organization has a considerably higher turnover rate compared to other organizations that work in the country and region at large.

World Vision Mozambique has employees from many parts of the world, with the proportion of foreign employees in the organization as a total number of employees being about 10%. This high proportion of expatriate workers in the organization is a characteristic of any other organization of its size and scope. Non-governmental organizations often operate in different countries, with most of them serving the interests of different people. Employees from various provinces in Mozambique, for example, Maputo, Zambezia, Tete, Nampula, and Gaza enhance diversity at WVM.

The international nature of NGOs is the reason for the high number of expatriate workers in their workforce. This observation is the case for World Vision Mozambique. The above problems at World Vision Mozambique are characteristic of most of the non-governmental organizations in the world. They form the focus in the discussions made in this thesis. These problems have also contributed to the title of the thesis, with the recommendations made being based on their analysis. For most of these problems to be effectively tackled, the thesis develops some questions that the thesis attempts to answer. The questions include:

  1. What human resource problems exist at World Vision Mozambique?
  2. To what extent does the recruitment process at World Vision Mozambique determine employee satisfaction?
  3. Which intervention strategies have helped World vision Mozambique to maintain an effective and efficient workforce?

Research Goals

In this particular thesis, I will evaluate the human resource challenges that are present at World Vision Mozambique. The goal is to establish the general challenges that affect all non-governmental organizations that operate in different parts of the globe. The analysis will also present the probable areas for change that these organizations can focus on.

According to Padaki (2007), the human resource challenges that affect organizations are diverse, with the non-governmental organizations having special situations that make their operations prone to these challenges. Therefore, their version of challenges is unique. Any thesis should be based on particular objectives, which guide the collection of data, its analysis, presentation, and the development of appropriate conclusions. In this thesis, several objectives have been developed as a guide to the above areas of the research. These objectives also dictate the exact processes that will be followed in the final research to ensure objectivity and reason.

Research objectives

The objectives that guide this thesis include:

  1. To find out the human resource challenges that exist at World Vision Mozambique
  2. To find out the extent to which recruitment processes at World Vision Mozambique determine employee satisfaction
  3. To explore the intervention strategies that World vision Mozambique applies in maintaining an effective and efficient workforce

Research Hypothesis

From the above research objectives, it is possible to obtain the hypothesis that will be used in this study. This hypothesis constitutes the tentative statement of the explanation for the challenges that NGOs experience in the area of human resource management. Since the research focuses on World Vision Mozambique, the hypothesis is also specific to this particular non-governmental organization. This research is guided by the following hypotheses.

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  1. The human resource challenges in World vision Mozambique are because of poor employee management
  2. The challenges of human resources in WVM are due to the location and poor organizational policies
  3. The paper hypothesizes that WVM’s HRM challenges reflect the situation in all other global NGOs
  4. The alternative hypothesis is that WVM’s HRM challenges are characteristic of the NGO and not a replica of the global situation.

Research Environment

The research is based on the challenges that have been observed at a personal level. The NGO in focus is World Vision Mozambique, which is located in Mozambique. It offers services to the local and regional population. Therefore, the research environment is appropriate for a discussion on the challenges that NGOs are facing. The location of World Vision Mozambique presents an appropriate environment for the assessment of some of the problems that are affecting these organizations. Third-world countries are some of the worst hits in terms of challenges with human resources. The evaluation in Mozambique presents an appropriate environment for this assessment. The review will also be done in the background of problems that are being experienced in human resources in the organization under scrutiny.

Organization of the Thesis

The organization of any research is crucial since it dictates how the researcher presents the information gathered from the research. The researcher should ensure that the reader integrates the information that is presented. An example of this case is the presentation of information in chapters. This plan forms the basic outline of this thesis, which consists of six chapters. The first chapter consists of the introduction, which contains the objectives of the study and a statement of the problem among others. The second chapter is a literature review, which consists of the available information on the topic under investigation.

The third chapter is the thesis statement, which is followed by the methodology in the chapter that follows. Chapter 5 is a data presentation where information gathered from the research will be presented and analyzed. This chapter will be used to answer the questions raised in the introduction, which are based on the above objectives. The discussion will also be made based on the literature review, the findings of this particular study, and the emergent comparison. The sixth and final chapter focuses on the conclusions that can be made based on the research findings.

Literature Review

Many researchers have written on the human resource challenges facing organizations in general. These challenges are similar to those faced by NGOs, except that these organizations have other unique challenges. According to Padaki (2007), the special challenges facing NGOs include lack of funds, poor governance, the absence of strategic planning, poor networking, poor communication, limited capacity, and political interference. In terms of funding, NGOs are dependent on funds from well-wishers and other international organizations. The supply of these funds is not constant or consistent. This situation makes the organizations less financially efficient. Padaki (2007) confirms that NGOs face the challenge of funding because of donors withholding help. Traditionally, the international community has been responsible for the provision of funding to NGOs for development in certain areas within which they operate.

The knowledge of human resource setup in NGOs will be crucial in establishing the factors that affect the performance of human resources in their setup. Mozambique is one of the nations with many NGOs, which are tasked with the provision of certain services to the populace. The knowledge of human resource challenges in the NGO setup ensures adequate future management of this area. The thesis will assess the situation in this organization and use it as a guide for other organizations of the same caliber.

Accessing donors is also a challenge for the NGOs since they operate with conditions that are to be fulfilled before the funding. The criteria for funding are also a factor in the availability of donors, with some of these organizations developing the perception that cartels control the donor funding. This control makes it hard for deserving NGOs to secure enough funding for their projects and recurrent expenditure. The result is a decrease in the funds that are available for the payment of employees. The problem of funding is not entirely limited to donor funding, as NGOs have been known to depend on donors at the expense of local funding.

According to Padaki (2007), NGOs have a limited capacity and resource mobilizing skills. Hence, they are unable to secure funding from many areas. The organizations look for funds from the international community. They overlook the locally available funds in areas that they operate in. The other problem with donor funding is the prioritization of activities and operations. Donor funding is associated with poor planning of activities, with these organizations carrying out functions that are perceived to be favored by donors. These organizations also abandon the operations that are appropriate for the area within which they are located to perform those that are prioritized by the donors who fund them.

The other problem that also affects the NGOs is poor governance that is present within this sector. Poor governance is not only restricted to individual organizations but also present within the NGO councils that administrate the many non-governmental organizations. This challenge in governance affects the issues of human resource management where poor management leads to high employee turnover and poor motivation. In some areas where NGOs operate, the management is unaware of the use and functions of the board, with this observation hindering the management of human resources within the organization. Some NGOs face the challenge of ownership where the founders wish to own and control the organizations at the expense of the locals and without carrying out the most pressing activities for that particular region.

The other function in NGOs is the presence of accountability and transparency. Poor governance is a recipe for lack of accountability and transparency, with organizations that practice poor governance being riddled by the same. According to Padaki (2007), some of the NGOs mismanage the little resources that are at their disposal, a situation that leads to the challenge of human resource management. Some of these organizations end up experiencing problems with the boards that manage them and/or sectors in which they operate. The boards that control the NGOs have been accused of taking the frontline in terms of misappropriation of funds that these organizations are awarded. The misconduct and poor governance of NGOs grossly affect the recruitment of employees because employees are shortlisted based on their ability to raise funds, which goes towards promoting individual goals.

The above problems present a challenge to the NGOs, with another problem being the absence of strategic planning. According to Padaki (2007), few nongovernmental institutions have premeditated policies in place to guide their tenure and functioning. The absence of strategies presents a problem for the NGOs, as they become vulnerable to donor control, with the other effect being difficulty in measurement of the impact that these NGOs have over time.

The other prevalent problem for NGOs is the presence of poor networking, which is a predominant problem for these organizations. Poor networking affects NGOs through the duplication of roles and effort. According to Padaki (2007), many NGOs in different parts of the world serve similar functions. These organizations are more efficient if they operate in unison, with networking being a definite way of ensuring efficiency. At the community level where NGOs operate, some of the functions that are performed by the NGOs are similar due to the poor strategy formulation.

Rewarding is another issue that is widely discussed in the literature as being a challenge for NGOs. For the corporate organizations that can use part of their profits for performance appraisal and rewarding, their employees are adequately motivated. As a result, they carry out these functions with ease. According to the Society for Human Resource Management (2008), the resources that donors provide may not be sufficient to allow for appropriate employee compensation, let alone rewarding. The presence of these challenges makes staff rewarding and compensation difficult, and hence the high turnover that is reported in these organizations.

According to Lewis (2001), the chief employee motivator in any form of organization is the remuneration that they get. Organizations that can offer better salaries for their employees often manage their employees with ease while those that fall in the category of NGOs often find it difficult to provide these basic needs for employees. The motivation of employees to perform their work is dependent on how well an organization is structured to provide these needs. NGOs have a limited capacity to motivate their employees. Such limitation promotes employee turnover.

Unlike corporate organizations, NGOs have the added advantage of having volunteers in their organizations. Most NGOs rely on the services of volunteers who provide the organizations with the human resources that are needed to fill the gap. Although corporate organizations also have volunteers operating within them, the prevalence of this practice is more pronounced in NGOs (Lewis, 2001). This issue is another challenge that NGOs encounter concerning human resources. Volunteers often perform their work in an environment where they have limited control and supervision, with the available terms being those decided by themselves. They are also available to the organization as long as their own goals are being achieved (Nwaiwu, 2013).

Human resource in NGOs is also affected by the nature of the operations that they undertake. Since NGOs offer specific services to the area within which they operate, the recruited human resource is specific to this area of practice. According to Lewis (2001), this plan allows employees to practice their line of trade. However, the limitation is that employees cannot get to practice the different skills that they are trained in due to the operations that are carried out in the NGOs. The human resource challenge in NGOs has been associated with the existing challenges within these organizations. However, little attention has been given to the challenges that the employees may present to these organizations.

Human Resource Supply

According to Lewis (2001), most of the individuals who work in NGOs are recruited from the area within which these organizations operate, with a significant number being drawn from elsewhere. Although the presence of different nationalities at the same workplace promotes diversity and tolerant organizational culture, Lewis (2001) confirms that diversity can also be a problem at the organizational level. The existence of different cultures at the workplace affects communication where the employees may not understand each other due to differences in language. Diversity also creates differences among employees, which may be a hindrance to the productivity of these individuals.

Non-governmental organizations in different parts of the world have different guiding principles on diversity. These policies affect the general productivity of these organizations. According to Lewis (2001), NGOs have some of the most diverse workers. However, these employees are less supervised concerning their colleagues in corporate organizations. The result of this reduced supervision is the reduction in output as compared to conventional organizations whose diversity is surpassed by the desire to make profits for the organizations.

The recruitment process in NGOs is associated with significant frustration (Nwaiwu, 2013). These organizations have often attempted scientific recruitment in the past where scientific methods are used in the recruitment process. The last decade has seen the supply of human resources in NGOs reduce, with this outcome being related to the changes that have taken place in this particular sector. According to Lewis (2001), one of these changes is economic liberalization, which means that the educated youths around the globe are finding it easier to access jobs in the corporate market as opposed to the NGO sector. Fewer people are currently interested in development as opposed to the number that was recorded three or four decades ago.

Nature of NGOs Work

NGOs often develop from projects that are meant to serve particular purposes within the population. This situation can be contrasted with the development of corporate organizations whose sole purpose is to make a profit and/or create employment. When NGOs accomplish the projects that they were originally meant to serve, they may engage in other projects that relate to the initial one. These projects may be clustered into several programs. The organizations often propagate their agenda and carry out their programs using the money received from donor funding. They use these programs to recruit employees who have experience in particular fields. Donors who provide the funding for the programs that are to be carried out by NGOs may be drawn from different parts of the world and different sectors of the economy. However, these sectors are known to have stakes in the outcome of these projects.

Since NGOs operate based on the existence of projects, they face an uncertain future where the completion of a single project means that they have to terminate their operations. Therefore, employees in these organizations face the challenge of job security. Their stay at the organization is dependent on a constant supply of funding from donors and the state of the projects that the NGO is carrying out. Termination of any of these terms means that the employment contract between the employees and their organization ends. According to Lewis (2001), the temporary nature of employment at NGOs is one of the factors that fuel the challenges that these organizations face in the area of human resources.

Staff appointment is another challenge that is notable in non-governmental organizations. Lewis (2001) asserts that the appointment of staff is project-based, with the main method used to hire employees being contracting. Employees are appointed for specific periods within which the organization is operational based on the running projects. Since NGOs are heavily dependent on other funding organizations, they face the challenge of carrying out human resource development (Lewis, 2001). These organizations are unable to offer long-term employment to individuals and/or provide career paths for these individuals.

Some NGOs have been in place for long enough to offer some forms of human resource development to their staff. However, contemporary NGOs still face these challenges. In the third world countries where most NGOs operate, a significant gap is evident between the market demand for qualified professionals and the actual number of qualified professionals who are available in these markets. These markets have a significantly large untrained population, with the organizations being forced to outsource specific services from elsewhere. The result of this case is that the organizations often have a problem with the number of foreign workers in the countries where they operate. There is also the challenge of stability within the areas where these organizations operate, with these third-world countries being rocked by conflict from different sides (Nwaiwu, 2013).

Worth of Employees in NGOs

The above challenges relate to the nature of NGOs where the reliance is on other people to provide the funding. This situation is also the case in the assessment of the worth of employees in these non-governmental organizations. Conventional corporate organizations use a performance-based rewarding system (Nwaiwu, 2013). In this system, employees are rewarded based on their performance in their areas of work, with the rewards being based on the value that the organization puts on this outcome. Corporate organizations can afford to run this performance-based system because they have adequate financing from the profits that they generate. On the other hand, NGOs are known to have the challenge of rewarding their employees, with the term being avoided by the management of these organizations.

According to Lewis (2001), NGOs often avoid using the term rewarding informal statements. The challenge can be approached in many ways. Several researchers have discussed these different outlooks. According to Lewis (2001), human resource managers in NGOs face an ethical dilemma when deciding on the performance rewarding of employees. The reason for this observation is that the funding of NGOs is from special organizations that can be viewed as well-wishers. These organizations are often public bodies and institutions. The dilemma is whether the organizations should use the funds to reward employees or spend them on other projects that may be more accountable to the public. Any increase in staff salaries or the provision of benefits to employees may be considered an unjustifiable use of public money.

The other challenge with the value of employees in NGOs is a normative one. Since NGOs are established based on the existence of special programs, they are expected to perform these programs with the available resources. It is expected that NGOs should spend a significant amount of the money they receive on projects that they are undertaking. Any ‘overheads’ are a drawback to these projects. Some researchers have described the acceptable ‘overhead’ in the programs undertaken by NGOs as being the ratio of what is spent on the organization against what the beneficiaries of the programs get. Employees often fall into the category of overheads in most of these organizations, and hence the difficulty in ensuring that they receive the services and benefits that others enjoy in the corporate world. This situation is a common challenge in NGOs, with the employee turnover being attributable to the categorization of these individuals as overheads instead of assets.

NGOs often face the challenge of conflict between professionalism and the value of voluntarism. A question arises as to whether employees should expect advancement in their careers, rewards, career prospects, and growth in their NGOs, despite the common practice of making decisions at the workplace based on the worth of people to the organization. A common practice is that the increase in compensation should be based on the cost of living, with the rate of increase of these two being compatible (Lewis, 2001). As a bare minimum, NGOs are expected to ensure an increase in compensation to cover the cost of living for their employees (Lewis, 2001). This situation is not always possible in these organizations since the funding does not always increase with the concurrent increases in the cost of living.

Employee Stress in NGOs

The presence of stress in the workforce in NGOs is another challenge for these organizations. The working of NGOs dictates that they offer care to the population. Ironically, these organizations are stressful to the individuals that work for them. Employees are often required to put the interests of their organization before their interests (World Vision International, 2011). The demands of the organization are often put before the needs of the family, with employees often exhibiting a form of burnout from this situation. According to Lewis (2001), burnout can be one of the manifestations of NGO employee stress. Some of the unique stresses that can be found in NGOs include those that exist in different parts of the world where these organizations exist. Some of the challenges are universal to all organizations. They are not restricted to NGOs.

Some organizations that operate in special areas face special challenges that are restricted to this area. The organizations previously discussed special challenges that affect the performance of employees and that of NGOs in general, including the presence of diversity and poor flexibility for these organizations. These organizations often face the challenge of poor performance due to their staffing options. Another challenge with the staff is mainly in the form of training where NGOs lose qualified staff to corporate organizations.

Employee Experience in NGOs

According to Nwaiwu (2013), NGOs often recruit employees who are straight from training institutions. These inexperienced workers only stay for a limited period in the organizations. Analysts have even stated that these organizations often work as training grounds for corporate employees (Nwaiwu, 2013). In regions where NGOs operate, the recruitment process is favorable to the less experienced employees who are attracted to the rewards that are available in these organizations. Corporate organizations are less willing to offer employment to inexperienced individuals.

Many of the employees who are offered employment at the NGOs are fresh from training. This situation makes them less used to the operating environment of these institutions. The condition deteriorates when the employees emerge from different parts of the world, especially when their culture is different from that of the area of operation. Employees in these institutions are often young, having completed their education in the recent past. According to Nwaiwu (2013), the threshold for NGOs to admit fresh graduates is lower than that of other conventional organizations. Hence, the average age for employees is often younger. Developing nations also have a generally young population. Hence, their contribution to the NGO labor force has a younger population bracket.

The presence of these young employees in the NGO contributes to the high employee turnover in these organizations (Nwaiwu, 2013). According to Nwaiwu (2013), younger employees are very ambitious and often leave the lower-paying NGOs for the corporate organizations that have enough profits to ensure higher rewards. When younger employees in NGOs receive enough training and experience from these organizations, the higher paying corporate organizations are reported to snatch them by using attractive remuneration packages.

The result of high employee turnover from the NGOs is a workforce that is well below the one that is required to achieve the organizational goals. However, some NGOs have made measures that are aimed at attracting and retaining qualified, trained, and skilled employees in their workforce (Nwaiwu, 2013). These NGOs are known to use a significant amount of their financial resources to retain qualified employees, with this plan being seen as an unethical practice. The functions for which these organizations exist are surpassed by the desire to retain these employees.

Management in NGOs

Management is an important factor that affects the human resource at any organization. Human resource management is a function of management in any organization. Individuals who operate the human resource department in organizations determine how the organizations manage their human resources. Any factor that affects these departments has a direct effect on the organization as a whole. NGOs face a variety of management issues that have a bearing on the human resource in these organizations.

The management of human resources in organizations requires a devoted team that has the interest of the organization at heart (Nwaiwu, 2013). For the strategies put in place by these managers to succeed, the organization has to provide enough financial resources. Managers in NGOs have challenges that are unique to these organizations. These managers are not adequately trained in the management of employees, with the average experience being relatively shorter than that of corporate organizations.

Expatriate Employees

Expatriate employees are individuals who are employed in an organization that is located in an area that is different from their home country. Globalization has contributed to the large number of people who have migrated from their places of birth to look for employment elsewhere (Nwaiwu, 2013). Many employees are currently working in areas that are not necessarily their countries of birth, with international trade benefiting from this change. The emergence of multinational organizations is another factor that has led to the emergence of large populations of expatriate workers.

Currently, employment forms one of the greatest reasons for citizens to migrate to foreign lands. Some parts of the world such as the Middle East have even been reported to harbor a large population of immigrants who work in the different rapidly growing sectors. The demand for foreign workers in these countries is driven by the demand for labor and skills (Nwaiwu, 2013). As earlier stated, NGOs mainly operate in different parts of the world, with their staff reflecting the diversity of the contemporary world. Unlike the contemporary organizations that can attract foreign workers due to their favorable pay, NGOs attract expatriate workers based on the programs in place and other benefits. This thesis assesses the issue of expatriate workers in World Vision Mozambique by establishing the effect that they have on the operation of this organization and its culture.

In regions that have large numbers of expatriate workers, there is a high possibility of friction between expatriate workers and local workers who are employed in the organizations. The increase in the local population has often been a catalyst for conflicts between the local and expatriate workers. As the local population increases, the demand for jobs and competition for the available ones intensify (World Vision International, 2011). The result of increased demand for jobs in any region is the conflict between local and expatriate-based workers.

Another driver of conflict between local and international employees is the competition for control of any benefits that are available to the organizations. In regions where the population is not skilled at a certain job, employers often seek other employees from regions with a large number of trained individuals. When the citizens become more skilled in the sectors that attracted large numbers of expatriates, pressure mounts on the management of these organizations to recruit the local population that has skills but no employment (Nwaiwu, 2013). Political pressure is also known as a driver for the conflict between local and expatriate workers, as the political class tries to secure employment for the locals in the NGOs.

Donors are largely responsible for the funding of NGOs, but the funds are often accompanied by preconditions. Some of the preconditions include the specification in the number of foreign employees who are to be hired by these organizations (Nwaiwu, 2013). With such limitations in place, NGOs often end up with large numbers of expatriate workers in comparison with the corporate organizations. Most of the NGOs are also operational in fulfillment of a particular goal and purpose, with only a limited group of employees being attracted to this goal. Therefore, these organizations are unable to secure the recruitment of staff from one region, thus necessitating the recruitment of workers from other parts of the world.

The conflicts between employees from different parts of the world are not only physical but also ideological (Nwaiwu, 2013). Different employees from diverse regions of the globe are challenged by the differences in culture. Organizations with a large proportion of expatriate workers often have disparities between employees in the form of language and culture. The existence of a large number of expatriates in an organization introduces a different organizational culture from that of the local population, with this situation being a recipe for conflict. Inhibited communication between employees based on culture also leads to poor performance of the organization in question.

Thesis Statement

This chapter consists of the thesis statement, which is an important part of any professional research. The presence of NGOs as an important pillar of society warrants the investigation of challenges that affect individuals who are concerned with the activities of these organizations. The World Vision Mozambique faces a challenge of employee satisfaction. The thesis looks at the challenges that NGOs face in the form of human resource management, which has contributed to the restructuring of the organizations.

According to Kim (2009), NGOs are special in many ways, with the environment in which they operate being special. The investigation of challenges that affect these organizations needs to be centered on the existing NGOs. This issue forms the basis of this study. Most of the organizations in this category have been in existence for long periods. However, the general understanding is that they operate based on the existing projects and programs. Therefore, the assessment of the human resource challenges that affect these organizations focuses on one of the organizations that have been in existence for a long period. The organization under discussion is World Vision Mozambique, an organization that has had significant challenges in the area of human resources. Therefore, the thesis study aims at investigating and resolving the problems elicited in the study.

The main difference between NGOs and corporate organizations is the source of funding. The other motive is the reason for the existence of either organization. While NGOs exist to serve specific purposes and/or fill special gaps, corporate organizations are mainly in existence as profit-making institutions. Corporate organizations can easily afford to provide the necessary remuneration and rewarding for employees while NGOs face challenges in the form of employee turnover and remuneration. The thesis will aim at establishing the challenges in the area of human resources for the NGOs and the likely effects of this case on the performance of these institutions.

Methodology

In any research, the methodology dictates the accuracy of the findings and conclusions. The sources of information in research may be primary or secondary. A researcher may use a combination of both of these resources to arrive at relevant conclusions. The methodology for this research consisted of both primary and secondary sources of data, which the thesis utilized to arrive at the conclusions. In the literature review, secondary sources of information that the thesis employed to compare the results from different areas where NGOs operate. The findings were used to evaluate the challenges faced by NGOs and the reasons for the challenges.

Data collection is also an important part of the research. The formulation of conclusions should be based on the data collected from the field. According to Kim (2009), data collection can be carried out using special methods such as the use of questionnaires, interviews, and experiments. The choice of method to be used in data collection depends on the characteristic of research work to be conducted and/or the hypothesis developed in the study.

The data collection method used in the study of the challenges that NGOs face was specifically suited for this research where a questionnaire was the main tool for data collection. The other tool that was widely used in the research is interviewing where respondents in World Vision Mozambique were selected to answer some preset questions on different issues that have been affecting the staff. The management was largely investigated to assess the quality of management and the management practices. The information obtained from these questionnaires and interviews was later compiled and presented logically and easily.

Data presentation follows data collection. It may determine the quality of any research. In this particular research, the data obtained were presented in tables, figures, graphs, and charts. Tables were used to present raw data from the research. They (tables) contained information that was taken directly from the research. Other means of presentation were used for data that was obtained from the tables. According to Kim (2009), data presentation should utilize the best methods for easy clarity where readers can easily interpret the information from the research.

Adequately presented data allows researchers and other people who are interested in the results to find the meaning of the study and its relevance. Data presentation also allows the material on the research to be adequately presented to the reader, thus allowing adequate interpretation of results. Methods for data presentation should be visually appealing to the audience and readers. Well-presented and visually appealing data is easy to interpret and is more useful than other types of data that might be presented in other ways. In this particular thesis and research, data presentation follows the conventional scientific methods.

Data analysis is another determinant of good quality research. Several methods can be used to analyze data from research findings. Each has its accuracy, merits, and demerits. In this particular research, the presented data will be analyzed using special software for data analysis. The other conventional methods of data analysis will also be used for better accuracy. Since most of the data is gathered from single information, the analysis will see the establishment of many methods of data analysis. The methods of data analysis used in this research will be the most accurate for the research. All methods that have been used in the collection of data, its presentation, and analysis were selected based on their use in the research. The results will be used later to make the most accurate and reliable conclusions.

The research involved the construction of a research tool, which is the questionnaire. The questionnaire was constructed using questions that were pertinent to the study. The human resource department was the main target for the questions in the questionnaire. People who were selected to answer the questions included managers and employees within this department and in the organization as a whole.

The questionnaire had a section where respondents were required to provide their details from the organization, including the duration of time that they had worked in this organization. Confidentiality was a key component of the research, with the respondents being required to provide no private information such as the name of an employee number. According to Kim (2009), researchers maintain privacy in their research to avoid any biases while at the same time protecting the identity of participants. The next section consisted of questions that were meant to gather information on the individuals who participated in the study, including the experience that they had in their line of work.

The participants were required to give feedback on some of the areas that they would like to see changes, including the provision of the necessary knowledge on the running of World Vision Mozambique. Employee turnover was also addressed in the questionnaire, especially to the management. Respondents were required to highlight some of the reasons why they would consider leaving the organization. The management was also required to highlight some of the reasons why the staff in the various departments had left the organization for any other corporate organization or NGO. According to Kim (2009), the turnover rate within NGOs is different for the different departments.

Questionnaires that were provided to the employees required them (employees) to provide information that would be useful in the assessment of challenges that employees in NGOs face in general. A list of some of the challenges was provided, with each of the employees being required to select the challenges that he or she faced. Those who found additional challenges also provided them in the ‘others’ space.

In the next part of the questionnaire, the aim was to establish the recruitment process that is in place in this organization. According to Kim (2009), the recruitment process that followed in these organizations determines the quality of staff and the output that the organization gets from these individuals. The management is responsible for the recruitment of staff in such organizations. Hence, the questionnaire that was used to assess the recruitment of employees was addressed to the human resource management team. The maintenance of high standard staff is another challenge that this research sought to evaluate. In the tools that were used to collect data, management participated in an interview where some of these challenges were discussed and evaluated.

The environment where this organization operates was also a key concern in the research. The data collection tools had areas to assess this aspect. Participants were required to state some of the challenges that they had while working in the country where World Vision Mozambique is located. The number of expatriate employees in the organization was relatively high compared to the threat of the local population. Hence, the environment attracted social attention. Some places in the world report high incidents of friction between the local and expatriate employees. In this particular organization, the large number of expatriates was the subject of debate, with participants being required to provide their nationalities.

The bulk of the research was conducted on the employees of World Vision Mozambique where they were required to provide some of the useful information on their employment at the organization. The interviews were mainly focused on these individuals, with some of the questions being how well they liked the institution, what they were attracted by at the institution, their areas of work, and their experience in these areas.

The interviews also enquired on whether the employees had any plans to leave the organization for any other of similar size or in another sector. The employees were required to provide reasons as to why they would leave this organization. In addition to these questions, respondents were also asked to name some of the challenges that they had faced in the organization in the last few years, especially in the area of administration. They were required to provide details of the challenges that they faced and the reasons for these challenges.

The results of the above methodology were later compiled and presented using appropriate methods of presentation, including tables, charts, and figures. These presentation methods were selected based on their visual appeal, ease of interpretation, and appropriateness in the presentation of the data obtained. The analysis of this information followed, with the conclusions being made thereafter.

Research Findings

The research was conducted in World Vision Mozambique, with the participants working at this organization at the time. A personal experience with the organization as an employee was beneficial in the data collection process, as most of the surveyed employees agreed to participate in the study. The results were that 96% of the questionnaires handed out to the employees were answered, with the answers being provided for the different questions. Therefore, the results were useful in the formulation of the conclusion and answers to the different questions developed for the research. Most of the assessed areas were based on the challenges that were personally observed in this organization. These obstacles included the recruitment process, employee turnover, and the interaction between foreign and local employees. The management also provided feedback in the questionnaires that were handed to them, with these tools being useful in the research.

Strategy and Techniques

Different strategies and techniques were used in the data collection in the research, with most of these strategies providing useful information for the research. In the assessment of the human resource challenges at World Vision Mozambique, the challenges discussed above in the literature review were evident. In the area of expatriate workers, the results showed that the number of these workers is high in World Vision Mozambique, with the actual proportion of foreign workers being 10% of the workforce. According to Kim (2009), organizations with more than 5% of their employees coming from different countries can be considered diverse. The organizational culture encourages diversity, even in the presence of some challenges that relate to this large number of expatriates.

The expatriate employees in the organization were from different parts of the world, with a significant population being from the same continent. There is also diversity among the local employees who have been sourced from different provinces in Mozambique. The presence of a diverse workforce was indicated as being a positive thing for most of the respondents. The foreigners are noted to have brought skills to the organization, with the human resource department mainly focusing on the positive changes that have taken place. Employees who responded concerning the presence of diversity in the organization also noted that the presence of expatriate employees contributed to a diverse culture at the workplace. This culture contributed to their integration and the output that they could produce for the organization.

Several challenges were noted in the area of expatriate workers. The challenges include the culture shock that the expatriates were subjected to on their arrival at the organization. Most of the expatriates took a long period to settle in the organization. This situation inhibited their performance at the workplace. The differences in language between the local employees and some of the expatriate workers were also a significant challenge for the organization, with the expatriates having to train and learn the local languages. The communication barrier also hindered the performance of these employees at the workplace, with the result being a reduced output and performance of the organization in general.

The recruitment process at World Vision Mozambique was also an area that was assessed in the questionnaires and the interview with the management and employees. Employees are recruited through a special board that determines the candidates to be employed in this organization. The organization frequently advertises for vacancies in the different departments where the interested individuals are required to apply through the human resource departments. The qualification of employees that are shortlisted for the vacancies is determined by the job requirements in the organization in question, including the training that these candidates have had.

According to Kim (2009), the recruitment process is a major determinant of the quality of staff that organizations have. As a result, the performance of these organizations is a function of the quality of the workforce. In situations where the shortlisted candidates are fewer than the number that is required to fill the positions, the organization often outsources its employees from the neighboring countries and on the international market. The recruitment process also utilizes the local population more than the international workers, with local agencies being contracted to recruit the candidates for the various positions.

Most of the employees who participated in the study had different reasons for being in the organization, with the most common reason being financial satisfaction and stability. A significant number of employees also reported their presence in the organization as being motivated by their desire to further their experience in the respective areas that they were working. This group comprised mainly the younger employees who had joined the organization in the recent past. According to Padaki (2007), younger employees working in NGOs often seek training and experience in these institutions to further their education and marketability. These employees are likely to leave the organization in search of better employment terms.

The average age for the employees who are working at World Vision Mozambique is 27 years, meaning that the bulk of employees are youths. The experience for these employees at the organization is four years on average, which means that the organization has a large number of employees who have worked for a short period in the organization. According to Padaki (2007), lower average experience for employees in an organization is an indicator of the turnover rate in the organization. Hence, World Vision Mozambique is an organization with a high employee turnover rate. Therefore, a high turnover rate in this organization is a challenge that should be addressed by the individuals in positions of management.

The research sought to know the reasons for the high turnover rate in the organization in focus, with the results indicating that the number of employees who had left the organization in the past year was significantly large. Some of the reasons provided by the staff included the absence of job security in the organization, with employees seeking jobs that are equally paying but with better job security. The corporate organizations in the region were the major beneficiaries of the high turnover in World Vision Mozambique. A large number of employees who left the organization for other organizations did not indicate their desire to return to World Vision Mozambique.

The other part that was assessed in the questionnaires and the research, in general, is the maintenance of good staff at the time of crisis in the organization. According to Korezis and Panagiotis (2008), organizations are often robbed of good staff when issues that relate to staff comfort develop. Companies that have a good crisis management strategy in place often end up retaining their staff whenever a crisis occurs. Most corporate organizations are well prepared to tackle any staff fallouts that may result from a crisis within the organization. On the other hand, NGOs have limited structures in place to prevent their best staff from leaving in the wake of a crisis within the organizations.

The management at World Vision Mozambique was another major subject of the research. This company has many subdivisions that serve diverse functions, among them being the recruitment of workers. The human resource department has a management team that is tasked with the rewarding and retention of highly qualified employees at the organization. The management team has a variety of competencies that are aimed at ensuring that the best employees are recruited in the organization. Some of the advertisements for the various posts in the organization and the requirements for the shortlisted candidates for this organization were obtained in the research. It was possible to predict the management options available in this department.

One of the obtained job descriptions is that of the post of communications officer. The human resource department describes the purpose of the position that it advertised, including the roles that successful employees will perform. This document may also be used as an indicator of the recruitment process within the organization. It begins with the roles of the communications officer, which are indicated as the production of communication materials within the organization and to the other individuals and organization as need dictates. Communication encompasses internal and external engagement within the organization. Like most other organizations, the human resource department at World Vision Mozambique proceeds to highlight some of the goals that successful candidates will have to accomplish.

The major responsibilities of the communications officer are also highlighted in the document. The department summarizes these roles as communication between the public and donors, media communications, advocacy communications, emergency communications, and internal communications.

According to Korezis and Panagiotis (2008), the threshold for any job vacancy should be indicated in the job advertisement or the job description, which is done in the case of World Vision Mozambique. The part on knowledge and skills for the selected candidates is useful in determining the recruitment process in this NGO since it indicates the qualifications that most of its employees possess. For the communications officer, World Vision Mozambique requires a person who holds a diploma or experience in journalism as a basic qualification since many individuals throughout the world have similar qualifications.

The second thing that may be deducted from the job description is the diverse nature of the individuals who are seeking this particular job. The required language is mainly Portuguese, with knowledge and skills in English being an added advantage. This specification means that the individuals whom the organization is seeking for this post should be diverse and/or able to communicate in the language of the locals and English. The specification means that foreigners may be allowed to apply for this position. The organization requires candidates to have a personal faith and commitment to Jesus Christ, with this aspect being expressed in the mission, vision, and core values of World Vision Mozambique. This requires that the candidates be Christians is another factor that may hinder the diversification of the organization and eventual loss of staff.

Organizations that have racial or religious profiling often lose some of their members who are not comfortable with these requirements. Some of the staff members who are shortlisted in the recruitment process may possess special abilities and qualifications despite their differences in religion. This situation should not be used as a means of recruiting and excluding candidates in the recruitment process (Korezis, & Panagiotis, 2008). Apart from cultural differences at the workplace, religious diversity should lead to workplace diversity and increased productivity. Another significant finding from the job specification provided in the organization is the interaction that is required between employees and the management.

The culture of the area in which World Vision Mozambique operates is diverse, with many communities finding their home here. The requirement is that the organization should ensure that the recruitment is fair and balanced. Nwaiwu (2013) asserts that the disparity between employees of different races and tribes in a culturally diverse area may be a challenge for organizations. Significant effort should be put towards the recruitment of diverse employees, which should ensure an increased number of races, nationalities, and tribes within the organization. World Vision Mozambique fits one of the organizations with a diverse workforce, with over 10% of the employees being expatriates. The rest of the employees, over 90%, are from different areas in Mozambique.

The other finding from the research includes the performance indicators that are provided for the post of a communications officer as discussed above. World Vision Mozambique provides performance indicators that are based on the job requirements of the individuals who are selected to perform any task in the organization. For example, the communications officer is required to have key performance indicators in the form of quality performance. The officer is required to contribute towards the publication of materials for the organization and the planning for the publications that the organization is to produce.

The knowledge of these employees is also a key performance indicator in the organization, with the requirement that these candidates should exhibit basic competencies in several areas of knowledge. In addition to quality and knowledge, the other competencies that World Vision Mozambique requires of its employees are reliability and productivity. An employee is only useful to an organization if he or she can produce results for this organization (Korezis & Panagiotis, 2008). Non-productive employees are a liability to any organization, including NGOs such as this particular one in focus.

Reliability affects the performance of employees, and hence its emphasis as a performance indicator in World Vision Mozambique. Unreliable employees affect the performance of an organization in several ways. Reliable employees have good relations with clients of the organization while untrustworthy ones often exhibit some forms of a poor relationship with customers (Korezis & Panagiotis, 2008). The result of such a characteristic for employees is the evident poor performance of the organization, which affects their future interaction with the management.

Data Presentation

The research provided some important information that could be used to make conclusions and/or answer the questions raised in the initial chapter. However, the presentation of this information is important to ensure that the reader can infer and interpret the research findings. The methods used to present data may be important for the reader, with the result being the ease of application of these findings. The first presented information is the distribution of employees in the organization concerning their areas of origin. This information is presented in the table below.

Province Total Staff by Province Percentage
Maputo 80 8.95%
Zambezia 380 42.5%
Tete 113 12.6%
Nampula 183 20.5%
Gaza 138 15.4%
Total Staff 894 100%

N.B Among these staff members, expatriates assume 10%.

The above table shows the number of employees from the different provinces in Mozambique and the proportion that was from foreign countries. Appendix 2 shows a pie chart representing this information. The highest percentage of employees (42.5%) was from Zambezia, which is the province in which World Vision Mozambique mainly operates. Employees were also drawn from other provinces, with the next largest proportion of them coming from Nampula with 20.5% of the employees. Gaza contributed to only 15.4% of the employees in the organization, while Tete had 12.6% of the employees. The province that had the least number of employees working in World Vision Mozambique is Maputo with an estimated 8.95% of the employees working at the organization being drawn from this province.

Proportion of Employees

The proportion of employees that were from foreign nations (expatriates) was 10% of the total number of employees. This figure is considerably high for the organization, which is proof that there is diversity at the workplace. The population of Mozambique is relatively large. The labor force has a highly qualified section and one that has little qualification and experience. The presence of a significant population of expatriates within this organization means that the organization is diverse, practicing an organizational culture that allows the accommodation of these diverse individuals. The chart below represents the number of expatriate employees working at World Vision Mozambique as a proportion of the total number of employees here.

Proportion of Expatriate

Although the proportion looks significantly small, the number of employees in this organization is large. Hence, the situation presents a challenge for an organization that struggles to present itself as a local brand. The local population is also wary of the number of jobs that are available for expatriates in this organization, while most of the general population remains unemployed or earns a meager salary. This element is one of the factors that fuel conflict between the locals and expatriates in the organization.

Discussion

The above questions that have been raised in the thesis are important to answer, especially for World Vision Mozambique. The knowledge of human resource setup in NGOs will be crucial in establishing the factors that affect the performance of human resources in their setup. Mozambique is one of the nations with many NGOs, which are tasked with the provision of certain services to the populace. The knowledge of human resource challenges in the NGO setup ensures adequate future management of this area. The thesis will assess the situation in this organization and use it as a guide for other organizations of the same caliber.

Although the working environment for NGOs is similar in most ways to that of other regular organizations, certain differences make these organizations specialize in the area of human resource management. These elements will form the basis of the thesis, which will evaluate these factors and present a conclusion based on the same. According to Campbell and Stilwell (2008), NGOs have a structure that is similar to that of other organizations. Therefore, the challenges are likely to be similar. However, this thesis determines whether this notion is true after evaluating some of the reasons for the similarities and differences. Therefore, it is worthwhile to answer the questions raised above on the human resource challenges in NGOs. The outcomes will also add to the growing knowledge in the area of human resources and the understanding of human resource management in special situations.

Apart from the diversity of human resources at the organization, the other factor that was assessed is the management changes within the organization. A significant finding is that the organization had changed its national directors seven times in the last 14 years. The changes in national directors have always been associated with changes in policies and approaches in the organization, with each of these directors providing a preferred method of management for the organization. The staff has been affected by the frequent changes in management, with most of them having to leave the organization for better-paying or stable organizations. The different approaches used by the appointed directors make the staff members unstable and unable to perform their work as stipulated in their performance contract. Change in these directors also causes discontinuity of the projects that are run by the organization, thus failing some of these programs.

Nwaiwu (2013) confirms that for organizations to be well-performing, the management has to be well in touch with the different factors at play, although it might take longer to master such factors. The manager needs to know the employees within the organization and familiarize themselves with the processes that are followed before the final product or service can be offered. Frequent changes in directors hinder stability in organizations. This scenario is a prominent factor in the NGOs (Korezis & Panagiotis, 2008). Some of the projects that are undertaken by World Vision Mozambique have been operational for many years, with delays being experienced because of the frequent changes in the national directors. This instability in the organization is another challenge that employees face, and hence the poor performance that they may exhibit in the organization.

This research also provided another significant result in the management of World Vision Mozambique. The national directors who have been changed over the last thirteen years have been outsourced from other regions and countries. Despite the organization operating in Mozambique, none has come from this country. All of the national directors in this period have been from other regions of the world, with this situation being associated with instability within the organization. National directors may not understand the staff members who are mostly drawn from the local communities. This difference in culture inhibits their corporation.

The presence of foreign national directors contributes to the vulnerability of employees within the organization and its performance as a whole. Some of the employee needs may not be obvious to a national director from other parts of the world, hence contributing to high turnover as staff members look for areas where their needs are understood in an attempt to satisfy them. The organization is also vulnerable from other areas, as the national directors are unable to predict certain directions that it may take.

The global economic crisis affected the global economy, including the NGOs that are heavily dependent on donations from donor nations. The global economic crisis reduced the supply of financial resources to the NGOs, with little money being used to run the crucial programs and departments. World Vision Mozambique has had to resize its staff, with some of the dismissals being done in an unsatisfactory manner. They interviewed staff members reported how some of their colleagues had been relieved of their duties in an unprocedural manner. Some did not get explanations as to why they had to be laid off while others were discharged without a clear indication of the reason for this situation.

The massive cut down in the number of staff members has progressed since 2010, with the move being aimed at restructuring the organization. The result of this restructuring is the dismissal of many people from the organization, with others being unsure of their stay at their workstations. The restructuring of the organization means that employees have experienced a reduction in their job security, with most of them securing employment elsewhere. The restructuring is not being conducted aptly. It is only a hindrance to employee performance and the organization in total.

The national director is in charge of the operations of the organization. He oversees different departments within this organization. The presence of only one control center allows employees to work under different rules as desired. A single national director is not able to control the organization as a whole. This finding reveals the difficulty in the management of the employee issues. For an organization of this magnitude, national directors should create a post for a deputy who should be charged with the responsibility of ensuring continuity whenever the national director is absent. The creation of this post will also ensure that the organization performs well in the wake of the management changes.

Another requirement is that the deputy national director should be a local individual who can understand the staff team that consists mainly of local employees. Whenever a change in the national director takes place, the deputy national director should be the one to carry on with the administrative functions, including the management of the different staff members in the organization. The staff team will be more stable if there is an individual who can manage his or her affairs even in the absence of the national director. The period that a national director serves in the organization is usually three years, which may not be enough to know the country, the represented communities, and the laws of the country. The presence of a deputy national director will ensure that the organization is informed of the rights of the individuals and different communities that are represented in the organization together with laws that relate to the operations and programs of this organization.

The practice of the organization letting people off is another concern, with the organization losing large numbers of qualified employees over the same matter. The job security that was present at the start of the millennium in this organization has been replaced by uncertainty. Many employees are unsure whether they are next in the line of individuals who are to leave the organization. They end up looking for employment in other areas that are perceived to have better job security. Some of the employees who are currently working in the organization are described as actively looking for other places of employment due to their uncertainties and lack of job security.

The lack of job security in organizations can hinder the positive performance of any organization. In the case of World Vision Mozambique, any scheduled program ends up failing. The result of such failures means reduced funding from the donor community, with the eventual loss of other employees. The sacking of employees in a manner that is described in World Vision Mozambique can lead to a vicious cycle where employees and the organization end up losing.

Employee anxiety is a negative component of any organization, with the work environment being adversely affected. Employees at World Vision Mozambique are reported to be anxious, with the main source of anxiety being the poor remuneration, rewarding, and the poor job security that is present in the organization. The massive layoff of employees over the past few years is reported to make some employees anxious, with most of them contemplating leaving the organization for better-paying ones. This observation is an example of ways in which NGOs lose their employees to corporate organizations that are better paying and with better job security (Korezis, & Panagiotis, 2008).

The other response from the questionnaires and the interview is that most of the organizations are unable to offer career development courses or participate in training activities for their employees. Employees are forced to learn on the job in most cases. Learning from the job is not an effective way of ensuring organizational productivity, as employees are often poorly equipped to handle the challenges that may present in this area. According to Korezis and Panagiotis (2008), organizations need to provide training programs for their employees, including the provision of internship and career development programs among others.

Questions about Alternatives

The alternatives that are provided in the research include the creation of the post of deputy national director of the organization and the introduction of accountability in the process that is followed in the recruitment and sacking of employees. The main question in both of the alternatives is whether they will be sufficient to address the challenges that are present in the organization. The creation of a deputy national director in the organization will be beneficial to employees since their challenges will be addressed by a more constant administration. The presence of a deputy national director will also ensure that the laws of the land are respected and that local communities are better understood.

The other question of the alternatives is whether the introduction of accountability will prevent the dismissal of employees without the following procedure. The answer to this question is that the increased use of procedures in the administration and communication with employees will help solve this problem. Employees will report an increase in job security while at the same time having their complaints addressed. The organization should embark on an exercise to eliminate employees on some of their basic rights and/or how these rights may be violated. The dismissal of any of these employees should be carried out transparently, with the authorities in the country being aware of the same procedure.

Limitations

There were some limitations when the research was being conducted. They may have affected the reproduced data. The assessment of the several factors that cause challenges in the organizational setting was difficult in an environment where employees were located because they were mainly at their workstations, with the employment contract requiring them not to engage in other activities apart from those that are sanctioned. The other limitation was the financial resource that was needed to conduct the research. The research was also time-consuming. It took most of my time. The research process was expensive since there was a need to provide an appropriate conclusion. A significant amount of money was also used to print questionnaires and the interviews that the participants were asked to take part in.

Conclusions

The research has looked at some of the challenges that NGOs face in their daily operations, with a specific focus on the human resource challenges in these organizations. The paper has used World Vision Mozambique as the organization of choice, with this company being chosen based on a long personal experience at the institution. Some of the challenges that many organizations face include those that are not limited to NGOs, including high employee turnover, poor organizational culture, poor management, and underperformance.

The thesis has used a personal experience at the organization to draw special conclusions. The main conclusion is that NGOs operate in a unique environment where the population is largely diverse and unemployed. The number of expatriate employees is relatively high, with this figure being higher than most other organizations in the world. The presence of expatriates in the country, especially those who work for the organization has introduced diversity, with the organizational culture being diversified. The report concludes that some of the challenges that are present in NGOs can be tackled through goodwill and intelligent management.

The research has fulfilled the objectives set in the beginning. It has contributed towards understanding the human resource in non-governmental organizations. The paper was also useful in the understanding of the recruitment practices within these organizations. The research has established that the challenge of keeping high standard staff without turnover can be a difficult one. However, some of the methods that may be used have been highlighted. A crisis may occur anytime in the organization. Therefore, organizations should have adequate measures to tackle this crisis. The paper has also provided a succession plan besides showing how it functions in the organization. Besides, it has also explored the challenges of maintaining expatriates and national staff without friction.

Recommendations

Some recommendations may be provided for the organization to help it overcome the challenges that it is currently facing in its human resource. The organization, and other non-governmental organizations, should embark on recruiting employees who are qualified for the jobs that they are offering. For those that are shortlisted for employment, the organizations should carry out training for them to ensure that they are adequately prepared for the different activities within the organization.

The human resource challenges in NGOs, especially in World Vision Mozambique, can be tackled through the employment of locals in the management ranks, as they understand the employees who form the bulk of the labor force. In the case of World Vision Mozambique, the national director should be assisted by a local deputy who should oversee the functioning of the organization in the event of a transition between directors. This strategy should limit job insecurity that is associated with new management.

The presence of expatriate workers in NGOs may be good or bad for an organization. Where the number of expatriate workers is high, the management should ensure that it can work in harmony with the locals. Training programs may be utilized to ensure that the two groups of employees can interact, with the result being an improvement in the production and delivery of services.

Remuneration and compensation of employees in NGOs are said to be poor compared to that in other types of organizations. There may be an ethical dilemma for managers on whether to offer rewards and better remuneration for employees. There should be improved terms of service for these individuals. Payment should be in line with the changes in the prices of basic commodities and the inflation rate. The remuneration should sustain employees in their day-to-day activities. Employees should also be protected from insecurity through the provision of better contracts and better terms of service. Although NGOs may not offer wages that are as high as those of the corporate world, they should ensure that employees achieve their dreams in these organizations. They should provide an environment where the employee works without any hindrances.

Reference

Campbell, J., & Stilwell, B. (2008). Mozambique: Taking forward action on Human Resources for Health (HRH) with DFID/OGAC and other partners. Mozambique DFID and PEPFAR/OGAC.

Goodhand, J., & Chamberlain, P. (1996). Dancing with the Prince: NGOs’ Survival Strategies in the Afghan Conflict. Development in Practice, 6(3), 196-207.

Kim, E. (2009). The Limits of NGO-Government Relations in South Korea. Asian Survey, 49(5), 873-894.

Korezis, P., & Panagiotis, E. (2008). Employees’ Psychological Empowerment via Intrinsic and Extrinsic Rewards. Journal of human management, 4(1), 17-38.

Lewis, P. (2001). Chapter 4 – Reward Management. In Contemporary Human Resource Management. New York, NY: Pearson Education.

Nwaiwu, B. (2013). Critical management challenges facing NGOs-Examining the Impact of Legitimacy and Human Resource Issues on NGO Effectiveness. London: CEDE Trust Fund.

Padaki, V. (2007). The Human Organization: Challenges in NGOs and Development Programs. Development in Practice, 17(1), 65-77.

Society for Human Resource Management. (2008). HR’s Evolving Role in Organizations and Its Impact on Business Strategy. New York, NY: Society for Human Resource Management.

World Vision International. (2011). World Vision International Accountability Report 2011, California, USA: World Vision International.

Youngwan, K. (2011). The Unveiled power of NGOs: how NGOs influence states’ foreign policy behaviors. Web.

Appendix

World Vision Mission in 2013

Health Pure Water Religion
  • Worked with various health centers to offer injections to more than 60000 expectant mothers
  • Partnered with health facilities to persuade the community to seek medical attention from health officers, rather than relying on traditional herbalists
  • Offered education on HIV?AIDS
  • Established clean water sources and partnered with community members to supervise the consumption
  • Partnered with various local religious centers to train young people on Christianity

2 % of Staff members by Province

2 % of Staff members by Province