Application of a Theory of Leadership

Subject: Leadership Styles
Pages: 20
Words: 5403
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19 min
Study level: PhD

This application section of the paper focuses on the Neo-populist leadership, i.e. the current leadership style in the third world countries. It further mentions certain changes in the country affairs and in leader’s own personality and in his character are required to implement the neo-populist theory. According to this research a democratic leadership style works best in the third world county: Hiati and the supporting statements would not only support but also provide evidence to the above statement. Later this section, will critically explain why leaders who are exposed to different institutional environments may have different leadership approaches.

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Populism is an American Movement which was started in 1981, to improve the conditions, provide freedom and power to the general public, esp. the farmers and the laborers. The neo-populist workers work within the confines of fiscal constraints and specially target their spending on the particular people. The basic reason behind populism was to prevail democracy in the world. Populism has been associated as a romantic, organic, naturalistic conception of the social order, i.e. the society as a whole. This populism was implemented successfully in Argentina as ‘Menemism’ and in Peru as ‘Fujimorism’. And then later during 1990’s a mixture of political populism and economic liberalism was implemented in Latin America. (Armony, 1-3, 2005)

Current Leadership in Third World Countries

Currently different leaders are adopting different leadership styles in different third world countries. Some are adopting democratic style, while some are being autocratic leaders and some leaders are adopting a total different approach, i.e. delegative or democratic leadership.

But whatever approach they use the leaders of the developing countries today are faced with variety of problems. The leaders in countries such as Angelo, Cuba, Ethiopia, Mozambique, Nicaragua, South Yemen, and Vietnam have faced issued like state planning and centralized decision making. They find themselves loaded with over bureaucratized, corruption, sagged economies, internal opposition groups, stagnant economy and political turmoil. (Duncan, 101 1989)

Most of the third world countries today have adopted a autocratic and a dominant leadership style, because the leaders themselves are corrupt and all their policies is about the well beings of the leaders themselves and the well being of the society is ignored. The biggest example is Nigeria, whose economy is stagnant for too long because of its leaders. (Bello, 1-3, 2008)

Egypt, which is one of the most, Least Developed Countries (LDC) of the world which has a list of 36 countries coming under the LDC by the Economic and Social Council of the United Nations had followed the authoritative and a commanding leadership style.

Cuba which is a third world country, its new president Raul Castro is currently practicing democratic leadership style as Ken Frankel, Chair of the Canadian Council Of the Americas informed the ‘CTV Newsnet’ (newspaper), that “Raul is considering to be Pragmatic and highly organized and that the sense is ……..he’s open to ideas.”(Associated Press, 2008)

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Leadership styles that are consistent with the cultural values of a nation are retained. Hofstede in 1980 provided a frame work for classifying work-related values in different national cultures and he classified the work related issues into four dimensions: individualism versus collectivism, power distance, uncertainty avoidance and masculinity verses femininity.

He suggested that these value dimensions influence preferences or tendencies towards certain organizational practices. E.g. among the other work related hypothesis, he proposed that the degree of individualism is related to degree of participation in organizations or countries. Based on this theory he suggested that the leaders in developed countries like U.S, Australia, Great Britain, Canada and the Netherlands which rate high on individualism are more likely to reveal autocratic and centralized leadership style than as compared to the leaders in developing or third world countries such as Norway, Sweden, Japan, Taiwan or Pakistan which rate low on individualism (Gibson & Marcoulides, 1, 1995).

There has also been seen a female leadership trend in Asia and other developing nations. There has always been an absence of female leaders elsewhere in the world but in Asia rather than blocking their rise to leadership it has proved to be a political advantage. Over the last decade and a half women have led into popular uprisings against dictatorship in different developing nations, e.g. Benazir Bhutto in Pakistan (1988), Ehaleda Zia and Shiekh Hasina Wajed in Bangladesh (1990) and Megawati Sukarnoputri in Indonesia (1998).

Moreover women have also lead democratic movements against the authoritarianism, e.g. Aung San Suu protested in Burma in 1998 against the military dictatorship renamed Myanmar and in Malaysia Wan Azizah Wan lead a reform movement against the long-reigning prime minister Mahathir Mohammad.

The same qualities that enabled a woman to lead a successful anti dictatorship efforts in Bangladesh, Indonesia, Pakistan, and Philippines also contributed difficulties of strengthening democracy in these countries. But the greatest loss of authenticity was due to corruption claim against female leaders as they were accused of governing in the interests of their family line. (Thompson, 1, 2002)

The Program

The application section of this paper highlights the fact that leaders in different environments have different leadership approaches and have different leadership styles. According to our research it can be analyzed that a third world country, leader’s can pertain all approaches, but should only apply democratic leadership style.

As it is mentioned above that there are five main leadership approaches: the trait approach, behavior approach, situational contingency approach, transformational leadership theory and cultural contingency approach. Certain approaches do not have any affect even if the leader is settled in different places or environments. Because the trait approach is based on personal characteristics of a person and they are not at all influences by the factors like environment.

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But in the behavior approach would be affected by different environments because the leader would have different skills operating in different places. E.g. a leader in the third world country where its resources are limited, communication channels also vary, where poverty is prevailed and corruption issues are at maximum here the leader would face a lot of problems in integrating and recognizing the problem, communicating the problem to other people, and taking initiative steps to lower the problems every thing would be very hard for the leader but situation will be vise versa in case of developed nations. As here the leader would be more relaxed and his whole process would be completed without any interruptions from the social or economic environment.

When the leader will be exposed to the situational contingency approach, he would definitely perform different. Often in the third world countries, political instability or political turmoil exists, due to this the leader cannot use democratic style but instead he would become an authoritative leader, i.e. directing others what to do.

Transformational leadership approach is one of the approaches that are practiced today in both the developing nations and the developed nations. The reason being different leaders in different places and environments strive hard to become leaders. Incase of a third world country leader, he would want to change himself according to the wishes of the people there and he would strive hard to become a leader.

In this case of the third world country the leader can either use autocratic leadership or participative but not delegative. But there are more chances for him to use participative or consultative leadership if the economy is growing and political stability is prevailed. As if he totally directs the people to his orders the situation will be worsened. As when we consider authoritative leadership in terms of economy then this rigid approach explains the lassie-faire economy or the market economy.

Cultural contingency approach is the real theory that explains why similarities and differences in leadership style might across national cultures. According to this approach it can be analyzed that leadership styles change with the social or political environments of a country. Third world country is often faced with the environmental problems so according to the Lewin leadership style, the leader will most likely adopt participative, but autocratic incase of high instability, e.g. emergency, civil wars, or riots. According to Likert leadership style the third world country would adopt either benevolent authoritative or consultative. According to Goleman’s emotional leadership style, the leader would be visionary, coacher, democratic, affiliative and also pacesetter.

It can be concluded that the leader in the third world country may adopt any of the five approaches but he may and should focus on democratic leadership style. But that does not mean that entirely all the decision should be left on the public, but their point of view should be taken. Because on the based of previous findings, all the third world countries had adopted autocratic leadership styles and so did not face any political or economic boom but instead there economy remained stagnant. But now most of these countries have started to adopt democratic leadership in their countries and have seen changes in their economy in terms of political, social, developmental and economical changes.

Need for Program

The democratic leadership style should be adopted in the third world countries, esp. Haiti because all the successful developed nations who enjoy the monopoly power in the world and also experience a high growth in GDP, strong human assets and a low degree of economic vulnerability adopt democratic leadership. One of the known nations is USA; it has not only adopted democratic leadership in the country but also created Democratic Leadership Council (Steinberg, 2003). China is one of the fast growing nations of the world and the reason behind their success is the change in their leadership style, they shifted from autocratic leadership to democratic leadership (Thornton, 2006).

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Admission to Program

We can apply the democratic leadership in the third world country: Haiti by building different councils. This would provide a platform for the citizens as well as their confidence in the leader that he is making efforts to prevail democracy in the nation. E.g. USA has established different democratic councils, among the known is the Democratic Leadership Council which runs on the rights and prevails democracy in the country.

Democracy can be prevailed following the six-steps: first invitation should be given to all for their suggestions, when all have given the suggestions they should be written down. Then discussions should be made regarding the pro and cons about the suggestions suggested and while discussing those suggestions an equal opportunity, recognition and respect should be given to each of the suggestion suggested. In the end finally summary should be prepared and the best result should be picked up after undertaking the maximum votes in favor of the suggested proposal (Eismann, 143, 1996).

The individuals should be given more liberty in the say of the country, i.e. they should have a say in the decision making of the country. The democratic leaders are those people oriented leaders who work in the interests of their people. They are the accommodators for whom the task is people’s feeling as much more important than the task itself (Rickets, 66, 2001)

The leader needs to be loyal and sincere towards his work and the people, as the leaders in the third world nations are mostly known to be the most corrupt ones. They work in their own interest, cheat, lie, show dishonesty, use the government’s property for their personal use and their have also been cases where the leader had stolen the government possessions, e.g. the Egyptian and Pakistani leaders are known to be corrupt for their have been information that they stole the public funds.

Initial Consultation

This section of the application includes all those strategies that a neo-populist leader should adopt to increase for the development of the Haiti. The following are certain recommendations, strategies that a leader should follow for the betterment of the country. As the third world countries are faced with the lot of issues the following strategies would help them gain a certain edge and help them in becoming tomorrows developed nations. These strategies have been given in referring to the context of the current position of the third world countries. Also these strategies are those that are being followed by today’s developed nations.

Educational Strategies

The leaders in Haiti need to analyze their policies on education and develop different educational models in both rural and urban areas. The leaders should adopt this educational leadership strategy because education is the medicine to most of the problems and diseases in the country. Not only quality education should be provided to the general public but the leaders should systematically combine the intellectual study with the physical work.

Education should be provided to develop the attitude of communal responsibility among the community. Simon A Clarke, the principal in Sam Sharpe Teachers, Collage in Parish gave his four key objectives that he wanted to provide to the children through education included sound academic training, sound professional training, opportunities for the fullest possible personal development and all the means for using the academic, professional and personal accomplishments for community developments.

A holistic approach towards teacher training is also an important educational strategy because teachers are the main source of education. Immediate steps should be taken as different teacher training programs should be developed with the global perspective under teacher trainers and curriculum specialists.

Certain measures should also be taken to improve the reading skills, overcrowded classrooms, high student absenteeism, irrelevant curriculum and low possibility of employment for large segments of the student population.

Last but not the least; the developing nations should get proper access to microprocessors, computers and technological advancements. And a similar platform and resources should be provided to both the developed and the developing nations to have access to universal education. It should be provided because this world is becoming an information age since the beginning of the 21st century. There is so much fierce competition due to the globalization that survival is getting very difficult. It can be concluded that education is the key tool in development of individuals and as well as of nations and if the third world nations’ leaders adopt this educational strategy in their policies they can surely lead it to new grounds (Cogan, 2-4, 2002).

Political Strategies

Executive leadership is required in the third world countries not only in the bureaucracies but also in different legislatures, judiciaries, public sector industries and the military. The third world countries need to focus on the presidential leadership as there should be autocratic and bureaucratic control. The third world country can adopt the three major political strategies to gain an edge in development:


Containment can be defined as those “actions that are aimed at controlling, absorbing and deflecting pressures and demands that are made on executive. These actions include co-opting key figures and social groups, preempting the maneuvers of political opponents, balancing the key power centers against one another and creating institutional to control, if the population cannot be mobilized.”

The goals of preemption and containment are more important than the goals of mobilization and participation. Under containment leaders should make efforts to thwart the class conflict, to act as a counterweight t the military and mobilize any previous disenfranchised elements in the society. An example from the Egypt can clarify the above problem as when in 1953 when Naseer was ruling the country, he made certain actions. As he dealt the military problems beyond the containment strategy, but towards the technique of balancing key centers of power against one another. Also to avoid threats from his own institutional base he forces the retirement of suspected officers and in return entrusted the armed forces to his close friend, Abd al Hakim Amir.

Leadership style under containment can also be characterized by preemption, appeals to public legitimating, political liberation, economic reform and strengthening the military as the key supporter and guarantor of the regime.


Repression can be defined as those “actions that involve coercion and such forces that are used against the opponents of the government. Certain tactics that are included in these specific types of actions are through surveillance of opponents, job dismissals, control of future hiring, arbitrary arrest and overt physical violence”.

Repression can be resorted in a country through political dissent, through justifying those actions that are meant to protect the gains of the revolution. This can be achieved when the interior ministry and its associated intelligence and security apparatus play a decisive role in the maintenance of the government. E.g. in Egypt in 1954 the regime broke down violently on the Muslim brotherhood after one of its members attempted to assassinate Naseer (the president at that time). Due to this turmoil, arbitrary arrests were made against the members of the Ikhwan. One estimate stated that 27000 people were arrested in a single day.

Repressive apparatus also includes police surveillance, arbitrary arrests, and raids.

External Diversion

External diversion includes such “actions that are aimed to turn the public attention away from the unresolved problem in the society and economy. These actions involve dramatic maneuvers in international affairs intended to restore legitimacy or to buy tie and often include both those maneuvers, i.e. in preemption of and in response to and also popular dissatisfaction.”

Egypt had made attempts to repress the political pressures, turn away the external affairs in chase of legitimacy and also diverted the attention from the domestic problems. These domestic pressures can be diverted when the leaders treat them as national security crises and the global stage may offer an arena through which the government redirects the domestic attention and involve the public in regional and global affairs.

There can be diversion through manipulation in the international involvement of one’s government is a maneuver found in many countries, one of them is Egypt. This could provide a very convenient route for the governments in the developing countries as countries like Egypt are considered to be of high geopolitical importance by various great powers. (Ryan, 1-13, 2001)

Social development Strategies

The goal of the development program is to improve the lives of the poor, uneducated, undereducated and under-represented citizens of the Haiti country. The purpose of these programs is to help people improve their living standards through an increase in productivity and a rise in the personal and social welfare of the people.

Development strategies that have been placed too often have not been inclusive. As the top-down management strategy acted as an infection that led to the downfall of many development efforts by the government and also other institutions like NGO’s. But when people involve themselves and they actively participate in the planned development projects there are always more chances for better financial and social results. As the leader can only guide and motivate but the real essence is behind the local public.

According to Awa true social development is dependent upon three aspects, i.e. involvement, contribution and responsibility. The leader should not only be physically present but his mental and emotional involvement is also very important. Contribution refers to the motivation to contribute which requires both: creative thinking and taking initiative steps. The leader also has to be responsible in seeing and viewing the organization’s or nation’s problems as his own personal problem.

Social development also includes issues like social injustice and human rights. There should be a change in the attitude of the people as they should encourage greater productivity to rise from poverty not because of unproductive but because of exploitation and oppression.

All such development programs are not very successful in these countries because participation in these projects is very low. As social development in Nigeria often faltered because certain groups deliberately mismanaged the nation’s wealth by regimes which caused a negative affect on the standard of living of the needy Nigerians. (Lucas, 185-190, 2001)

Tourism development

There is a huge demand of the tourism sites because today the people want to explore the world. The major economic, social and technological determinants of tourism demand however are firmly located in the metropolitan countries. As most of the tourist movements are not international at all but are confined to domestic traveling.

High and rising incomes, increase leisure time, good education new and cheaper form of transport are all found in these economies and it wouldn’t be surprising to mention that they are also the suppliers of most of the tourists that are visiting the third world countries. Tourism has a rising trend so due to this it wouldn’t be wrong to say that if the third world industries invest some of their money in tourism development it would lead to higher productivity and high profits for the country. (Lea, 21-23, 1988)

Development strategies for women

Efforts have been made to improve the conditions of females in the society. Also development efforts have been made to improve the economic situations of women. The third world women are been treated as powerless, ignorant and trapped in inferior roles both in ethnic and traditional cultural practices. There has been a lot of discrimination against the women in the third world countries so the leaders in these countries should develop various association or Institutions that would strive for their quality life, e.g. women in Nigeria are very helpless.

Due to this, women centered social development programs should be initiated to provide rights to women in different spheres of life. These organizations should focus their implication for social development of women, proper development planning should be made that is addressed on the poor rural and urban woman survival needs, discussions should be made on the social welfare policies when social development is emphasized and possible connections between the social work and social development should be made.

Also efforts should be made to increase the productivity and earning capacity of the females for better living standards. The should promote such programs that not only built self sustaining growth among the females but also such programs that could replicate in the various ecological zones of the state. Certain economic opportunities should be available in the rural areas by promoting rural crafts, agricultural products and also creating various other jobs in various fields for women so they can be helpful towards better standard of living. They should also develop rural-based technologies for increased cottage industries and home made products because women can be helpful in making these products.

The rural women should also be trained in relevant improved skills and management of small enterprise so that the self- reliant rural development plans can be enhanced. Associations should be build itself with the government’s aspiration to develop the rural areas so that the teaming population could be fed and become self-reliant. Product marketing strategies should be organized and developed among the rural women so their product marketing skills could be enhanced beyond the traditional local market distribution networks.

The efforts will only be fruitful if there is proper implication of these social work practices. Even though different NGO’s are making efforts for the rural and urban women in these third world countries but all efforts will go waste if the leader of the country does not implement these strategies in its government policies (Lucas, 185-190, 2001).

Health strategies

In many underdeveloped nations efforts have to be made to deal with the problems regarding health issues. The health status should be improved not only of the general public but the workers health should also be enhanced in Haiti Proper dispensaries should be established that provides various services ranging from first aid for minor injuries to theoretical cases. Qualified doctors should be present in these dispensaries providing diagnostic and therapeutic services not only for the workers but also their families. Apart from this, plant medical services should be designed and organized to meet the local requirements of the people or the general public.

The general public does not have enough knowledge regarding the child’s diseases and due to this a large population among these third world countries dies at the age of 2-3 yrs old. Either the children born are so weak that there survival in the world is very low or either proper medications are not provided to them that helps them overcome these health issues.

In Haiti apart from the new infants the working population is at times also faces with serious problems that end up their life. The reason behind these health issues are the sanitary problems and other issues which were mentioned above. Due to this firstly awareness among the general public should be created about the general health principles and different dispensaries and hospitals should be build up in country to lower the health issues. Proper medications should be provided in these hospitals and strict measures should be taken against all those people who try to corrupt or show any illegal sign towards performing their duty.

Working condition strategies

In the developing nation Haiti, where industrialization is newly set up and the machinery or the plant information is limited to very few people. Certain arrangements should be made, to inform the working class about the working conditions and certain precautionary measures against these machines.

Plant or machinery medical services should be provided to all employees who are working under the plant. We can analyze the importance of working conditions of the working class, as in the industrialized countries various services like health screening, detection of occupational diseases, monitoring adaptation to work, workplace analysis and health consultations are provided to the workers in an organization.

Where on the other hand, newly industrialized countries where medical resources are scarce and health services are not well equipped. The plant medical services are required to devote much time to the control and treatment of endemic and communicable diseases, health education health education, consultation for the workers and their families and medical prescriptions are given.

The worker either he is from an industrial site or agriculture, in both cases there should also be proper well established administration, easy mobility of resources, availability of information about the agriculture hazards and their control, provide education to workers about agricultural products, an easily accessible, adequate and effective health care services provided to the workers, there should be proper veterinary service established and there should be sound finances for the agricultural undertakings. (Clerk, 37-39, 1985)

Setting Goals

According to the research and facts found certain goals should be set so the proper implementation of the neo-populism could be achieved. There are certain economic goals and certain political goals, both are equally important for the growth and leadership in the third world country: Haiti. These goals are the mixture of neo-liberalism and neo-populism.

There are three contents of the economic goals, i.e. the privatization of the public companies, deregulation of national markets and liberation of international trade. While on the other hand, the neo-populism defines the political style which has two variable factors: means and Appearance. Means defines the ‘hyper-presidentialism’ and appearance explains the ‘reflection of the popular will’, i.e. it explains the emotional bond between the political leader and the led (Armony, 1-3, 2005). It is through the help of these goals, the general publics living condition could be achieved.

Privatization of the public companies

This process involves the transfer of ownership from the government to the local or the public. When the public sector privatizes the companies this would provide incentives for the private sector. The privatization of companies involves wide range of stakeholders who are not only involved in the company operations but are also part of the general public who are regarded as the actual owner of the companies.

Some of the advantages that various countries have enjoyed when they privatized the public companies are: its performance increases, improvements are seen, corruption is eliminated, managers and the workers accountability increases, the economic goals are met, capital can more easily be raised, job security is provided to the employees, market discipline is prevailed in the society and profits increase to maximum. There are also certain disadvantages but those are almost ignorant in front of the advantages of the privatized public companies.

Deregulation of the national markets

The deregulation of the national markets is a part of the political project extolling the sovereignty of the market both at home and overseas. It is the process when the investment is made by the government and the individuals are given an open opportunity to work this deregulation of the markets is based on the competition law principle. These deregulating provides the local public, individuals and business an independent platform where they are no more dependent on the government agencies. This deregulation has always leaded to efficiency and effectiveness in the business and a development for the economy.

Liberation in International Trade

The liberation in international trade would include the reduction of tariffs, liberty in excise duties and the trade policy. When one company is trading internationally it involves the transfer of good and services from one country to the other. With the transfer of these goods and services investments and money come in the country. And if the investor would be given liberty and incentive in trading of goods then it would result in high production and investment.


Presidential decree authority is a powerful instrument for the chief executives in the politics of emerging democracies. The executive decree authority can be a central surface of the institutional desighs of new democracies since the executive’s ability to act unilaterally fundamentally impacts upon the legislature’s lawmaking privileged and directly influences the democratic consolidation of the government.

The level of presidential decree activity is predicted not only by certain institutional and socioeconomic factors but also by the domestic relative circumstances and executive leadership style. The level of hostility of the both socio economic and political domestic context for chief executive is especially critical. This executive decree represents a reliable unilateral means by which presidents can attempt to influence events and consolidate their power.

Assessment of Intentions

After the goals have been set in the above goal setting section, this section of the application highlights certain supporting evidences and potential barriers to accomplish these goals. The importance of these goals has already been mentioned in the above section above.

The trend of privatization of public companies has been seen as a proper and a fast solution in many countries, one of the known countries are Indonesia and Japan. Indonesia privatized its companies in late 1990s while Japan privatized in 1970s. The privatization in the developing countries like Indonesia is one of the successful tools used today, as Indonesia privatized its railways recently while Japan privatized it earlier and there is marked difference between the two nation’s railway services. (Rosvika, 2004) there has also been privatization is other countries like Pakistan (PTCL), their telephone company.

The deregulation of national markets, Hyper-presidentialsim and liberation in international trade is been followed by major third world countries as Hyper-presidentialsim is seen in Argentina and Russia. So if the same could be applied in Hiati it could produce awesome results.


In this section of the application, it is seen that when we implement this study to one of the third world countries Hiati. It showed a positive trend as when its credibility was seen it showed a higher effect on the increase in GDP, NPI and high standard of living among the citizens on the Hiati.


It can be concluded from the above research that leadership is very important in all spheres of life, from the informal to formal, from a single organization to the country as a whole. Leadership is not only important in the developing nations abut clear guidelines are necessary even for the developed nations.

There are different characteristics that are required in every leader; he needs not only be a guider but also a motivator, listener, problem solver, decision maker and many more. Just as leadership qualities should be present the same is applied in leadership approaches and styles.

With the help of these leadership characteristics the third world economy can develop and set its steps on new grounds. Because it’s a leader that can cause a country to rise or fall and when an effective leader with effective leadership approaches and qualities starts its pace to development then certainly it can lead the third world country to the developed nations and the well known example is China. It slowly moved from the underdeveloped nation to today it stands as one of the fast emerging nations of the world. Hence, it can be stated that proper leadership can cause any country to change and gain success.


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