Importance of Theory in Global Management Research
Even though there is a significant gap between the theory and the practical application of the acquired skills in the management area, one must not underrate the importance of theoretical tenets. The role of theory in management research includes identifying the roles and responsibilities of a manager. As a result, the premises for dynamic interactions between a manager and staff members can be built (Dudukarov et al. 301).
Indeed, the theoretical tenets that are used in global management research can be viewed as the set of principles according to which the relationships between the members of an organization are structured. The theory provides a detailed overview of the corporate structure, indicating what tasks need to be performed and, thus, informing the leader about how the identified assignments can be distributed among the team members. The existing management theories, therefore, help explore the corporate hierarchy and, thus, address the issues that modern leaders have when distributing roles and responsibilities among the staff members.
Furthermore, apart from using theory as the means of enhancing the relationships between a manager and employees, a theory may also be used as the means of classifying the existing management knowledge. For example, some of the information about management in the context of an organization may be used as the set of tools for delegating responsibilities, whereas others can be used as guidelines for handling specific issues and, therefore, gain a predictive value (Meyers and Woerkom 198). In other words, the identified approach suggests viewing the principles set in the management theory as the fundamental truths that are supposed to detail the relationships between the variables in question. Consequently, the theory becomes the foundation for making cause-and-effect assumptions and, thus, addressing the emergent problems successfully. It should be noted, though, that the specified approach of interpreting the role of theory in global management research has its problems, the lack of flexibility is the key one. Once a specific set of ideas is viewed as doubtless and is taken as an axiom, one becomes restricted by the identified standards and rules. Consequently, the chances of locating a unique solution to a specific problem and thinking out of the box will become rather small.
The tendencies in the evolution of strategic management research also show that a combination of theoretical, empirical, and methodological studies is required to achieve excellence in the target field and address the human resource management issues adequately (Guerras-Martín et al. 72). While denying the significance of considering management practice and learning from the relevant experiences would be wrong, the study by Guerras-Martín et al. (2014) indicates that theoretical principles provide the foundation for decision-making in the environment of an organization. Moreover, the focus on the theoretical aspects of the management process helps address the problems associated with the dual nature of the management process. For instance, it may serve as the means of managing the issues associated with the tension between the company’s interior and the environment in which it operates (Guerras-Martín et al., 2014). Furthermore, the application of theoretical principles of management may help resolve the tension emerging as a result of the collision of the micro-and macro-level concerns (Guerras-Martín et al. 73). Thus, the theory becomes the means of handling the problems related to the complexity of the global economy realm.
Advantages and Disadvantages of Case Studies
Case studies are very popular as the framework for conducting a study in the environment of an organization (Yin 68). The reasons for choosing case studies as the tool for gathering the relevant data and analyzing it accordingly are rather simple – the identified approach allows for rather accurate identification and analysis of the issues emerging in the context of a particular company. Furthermore, the format of a case study helps draw the conclusions that can be used to address similar problems in the environment of other organizations. However, like any research framework, a case study has its pros and cons.
In the environment of an organization, a case study can help simplify complex ideas and concepts. As a result, one may design a model of the current situation and locate the available solutions more efficiently and expeditiously (Seawright 174-176).
Furthermore, as a model, a case study may supply the solutions that can be used in different scenarios. Even though the identified research method implies carrying out data collection in a specific organization, it also suggests that a general conclusion should be drawn. As a result, the outcomes of the study may apply to other firms as well.
The fact that real-life scenarios are addressed when carrying out a case study also deserves to be listed among the primary advantages of the identified research design. While creating a model of a certain situation or studying an imaginary scenario is also important for furthering the management process, one must explore real-life cases to understand how similar problems can be addressed, how the members of the company interact, and what extraneous factors may affect the choice of actions.
However, case studies also have problems, the key one being the objectivity issue. To produce the research results that can be, later on, used to design a model for improving the employees’ organizational behavior, address the management issues, etc., one must facilitate complete objectivity and make sure that the results of the measurement should be interpreted in a completely unbiased and objective manner. However, seeing that, in most instances, case studies are conducted by one person, the objectivity of the conclusions may suffer.
The time issues also need to be mentioned among the primary concerns. While being rather efficient, case studies are very time-consuming. Therefore, by the time that the research is conducted, the relevance of its outcomes may be questioned. Furthermore, the time issue also affects the efficacy of the located solution.
Finally, the fact that a case study rarely allows a multi-faceted approach may be viewed as a reason for concern. Providing a rather narrow set of strategies that are typically limited to one area, a case study may fail to embrace the complexity of the workplace environment. As a result, the management approach designed in the process may lack efficacy.
Multinational Enterprises: Article Evaluation
The article under analysis addresses the issues associated with employee motivation levels, in general, and the analysis of organizational identification, in particular. The authors of the paper shed light on some of the aspects of organizational identification in the multinational environment. According to the outcomes of the research, in most cases, the organizational identification and turnover intentions are in inverse proportion to each other. Therefore, a closer focus on the culture- and identity-related needs of the staff is required.
The conceptual model used by the authors can be deemed as the strongest point of the article. Particularly, its ability to embrace a wide array of issues that may emerge in the context of an organization should be mentioned. The model helps link the factors such as the communication strategies and the organizational behavior standards to the levels of engagement among the employees, the rates of satisfaction that can be witnessed among the identified population, and the turnover-related statistics. While being fairly simple, the model allows exploring the intricate relationships between the key stakeholders, thus, pointing to the existing problems.
Furthermore, what makes the proposed model for exploring the changes in the employee behaviors special is the mentioning of the extra-role behavior. The extra-role factor often slips under the radar of company managers, yet it plays a crucial role in developing an understanding of how employees act, why they choose particular solutions, etc. By exploring the identified factor, one will be able to understand the reasons behind the choices that the employees make, as well as learn more about the means of motivating the target population. Consequently, the foundation for a significant improvement in the quality of their work and, therefore, the performance of the company, can be built. Thus, by shedding more light on the extra-role behaviors that the employees develop in the workplace environment, the authors of the study contribute to an in-depth analysis of workplace motivation as a phenomenon and help design the strategies that will allow boosting the staff’s engagement levels significantly.
The setting which the authors of the paper chose as the target location also needs to be considered as an advantage of the paper. By placing their research in the context of a multinational organization, the researchers emphasized the effects of globalization in the business environment, stressing that every company will have to face diversity-related issues sooner or later. Therefore, the study points to the fact that an appropriate framework for meeting the needs of diverse staff members will have to be created. Furthermore, by introducing the readers to the realm of a multicultural company, the researchers show that the decisions made in the global economy, especially far as the HRM-related issues are concerned, are affected significantly by an array of extraneous factors.
Finally, the authors should be credited for providing a detailed description of how the adoption of organizational citizenship behaviors helps improve the performance of the staff members, enhance their motivation levels, and improve the quality of the output. The study sheds a lot of light on the concept of organizational citizenship behavior, stressing that employees need to develop a sense of unity with the company to become loyal toward it. As a result, the connection between a company and its members can be established successfully.
The fact that the sampling method may have caused certain research biases and affected its objectivity has to be mentioned. The convenience sampling approach is often mentioned in research among the most popular tools for gathering the relevant data; however, one must admit that it has its problems. Seeing that the convenience sampling strategy implies collecting the necessary data from a specific area and does not allow exploring others, the sample is highly unlikely to vary. As a result, the sample will not represent the target population properly because of the inherent biases. The problem becomes even more tangible in the research under analysis since it involves the assessment of employees operating in a particular (educational) environment. Granted that the authors of the study research in three different states, the results of the sampling must have affected the objectivity of the research outcomes to a considerable degree.
Furthermore, the choice of a questionnaire as the means of receiving the necessary data should be listed among the factors that restricted the opportunities of the researchers greatly. To be more specific, the use of questionnaires did not allow gathering the information related to the emotional changes in the participants. There is no need to stress that the engagement of the employees and the changes in their motivation levels hinges on their emotional experiences related to their workplace. Therefore, assessing the emotional aspects of their responses is also crucial when carrying out the study of the problems associated with employee motivation. Other forms of data collection, such as interviews (including structured, semi-structured, and unstructured ones) can be used to capture the data associated with the emotional issues faced by the staff. Similarly, observations can be used to define the alterations in the emotional state of the participants. Questionnaires, in their turn, rarely provide a chance to look at the emotional changes experienced by the research participants. Therefore, by using questionnaires, the authors of the study missed a range of opportunities to explore the emotional aspect of engagement among the staff members in the educational environment.
Finally, one might argue that the authors have missed the opportunity to look closer at some of the motivation theories. Although the social identity theory was incorporated into the study, some of the crucial ones have been overlooked. For instance, Maslow’s hierarchy of needs (Elliott 81), the motivator-hygiene theory (Burke and Noumair 24), and the job characteristics model (Chen and Cooper 39) could have been addressed accordingly.
Therefore, the article can be considered a rather decent specimen of management-related research, especially as far as the choice of methods is concerned. The authors did a stellar job at identifying some of the issues faced by contemporary managers. The conceptual model, in its turn, allowed representing the target population quite correctly; as a result, a very accurate portrayal of the workplace environment and the conflicts that may be sparked in it was provided. The authors display a good understanding of the factors that affect employees’ motivation. Therefore, the outcomes of the study contribute to the development of the tools for increasing the levels of employee engagement in the corporate environment. The fact that the authors choose a multinational setting as the area of their analysis indicates that the opportunities for addressing the individual needs of employees and focusing on the promotion of diversity are created. Therefore, the study can be deemed as rather successful and worth being taken into consideration. The research provides impressive implications for a major improvement of the current approaches toward employee satisfaction and motivation management. Furthermore, it informs managers about the threats that lurk in the global economic realm and affect the company’s chances to improve staff motivation levels. As a result, even though the paper has minor flaws, it provides a series of important conclusions and a basis for the further in-depth follow-up study.
Burke, Warner W. and Debra A. Noumair. Organization Development: A Process of Learning and Changing. FT Press, 2015.
Chen, Peter Y. and Cary L. Cooper. Wellbeing: A Complete Reference Guide, Work and Wellbeing. John Wiley & Sons, 2014.
Dudukarov, Egor V. et al. “Global Innovational Networks: Sense and Role in Development of Global Economy.” Contemporary Economics, vol. 10, no. 4, 2016, pp. 299-310. Web.
Elliott, Gary. Organisational Psychology: Career Dynamics and Motivation in Organisations. New York, NY: GRIN Verlag, 2014.
Guerras-Martín, Luis A., et al. “The Evolution of Strategic Management Research: Recent Trends and Current Directions.” BRQ Business Research Quarterly, vol. 17, no. 1, 2014, pp. 69-76.
Meyers, Maria C. and Marianne Woerkom. ”The Influence of Underlying Philosophies on Talent Management: Theory, Implications for Practice, and Research Agenda.” Journal of World Business, vol. 49, no. 2, 2014, pp. 192-203.
Seawright, Jason. Multi-Method Social Science: Combining Qualitative and Quantitative Tools. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press, 2016.
Yin, Robert. K. Case Study Research: Design and Methods. SAGE Publications, 2013.