Knowledge capital and learning as essential considerations in human resource development
Knowledge capital and learning are essential elements in the field of human resource development. The different types of knowledge foster skills of human resources in organizations. The main types of knowledge include tacit and explicit knowledge. Tacit knowledge is mainly experiential, which implies that it is “inherent in the individual’s mind, and it is not easily articulated” (Angote 58).
For example, learning a language is hard to be transferred via writing, as it requires immersion for extensive periods. Its creation is hardwired in the biological and cognition functioning. According to Chivu and Popescu, explicit knowledge is usually expressed and perceived as transferable in various ways “as depicted by the inherent cognitive and technical aspects” (55). An example is the transfer of knowledge through process diagrams. Explicit knowledge can be created through books, documents, specifications, and manuals.
Learning organizations depict features that foster learning among the group members. Learning organizations are characterized by an emergent process, self-organization, intricate and multiple relationships networks, and co-evolution as individuals influence each other. HRD practices that affect learning include balancing the employees’ needs and that of the organization, quality collaborative teamwork, and embracing innovation.
Leadership theories and leadership development technique
The Yuki flexible leadership theory postulates that leaders need to influence the behavior of followers as the situations change. Here, leadership can be developed through behavioral changes, which are oriented to “the task, relations, or the experienced changes” (Northhouse 124). Bass and Avolio’s transformational leadership theory is based on the enhancement of morale and motivation by linking the employees’ sense of identity to a particular project and connecting it to the organization’s identity. In this case, leadership develops through individualized consideration, inspirational motivation, intellectual stimulation, and idealized influence.
The 360-degree leadership development technique is highly recommended for application along with the Yuki flexible leadership theory. The changing situations in the organization favor the method since it assumes that contextual differences induce varied changes due to different dynamics. The executive coaching technique is suitable for the development of leaders through the Bass and Avolio’s transformational leadership theory since it “favors one-on-one engagements that seek to transform the behavior of the followers” (Beitler 37).
E-learning could be used to develop leadership in various ways that include simulations, and enrollment for online leadership courses for the employees. This aspect is attributed to flexibility, customizability, and cost-efficiency. Communities of practice are significant for leadership development as tacit knowledge is fostered through organizational groups that regularly interact.
Creating a new performance management system
Practical tools like worksheets, reliance on various sources of information, the identification of the significant performance dimensions, and reliable structure for performance development would characterize the new performance management system. The features solve the problems faced by approaches like performance appraisal (PA). The lack of integration is a crucial barrier to performance management since various processes require synergy to achieve the expected outcomes.
For example, the human resource department may fail to integrate the organizational culture into evaluating the performance of an employee. The design of the system may create incompatibilities with the actual needs of the organization. For example, the model may fail to involve all the stakeholders in the performance management endeavors.
The aspect of talent management has been incorporated into the plans of the new performance management system as it embraces a talent mindset and restructuring the recruitment strategy. Career management would adopt dual career ladders by involving the employees, career anchors, and the HR department. The succession plan is also factored “as appropriate promotions, recruitments, and appointments would be considered with dynamism and flexibility” (Daniels and Bailey 14).
The principles applicable to adult learning could be used effectively to improve performance management results in various ways. The knowledge level of the adult would ensure that the process is developmental. Readiness and eagerness to learn would institute the learners to boost the performance outcomes due to commitment. Active learning would facilitate the “practicability of the process” (Smither and London, 154). Finally, multi-sense learning with an emphasis on visual dominance would be encouraged to attain desirable results.
Angote, Linds. Organizational Learning: Creating, Retaining and Transferring Knowledge, New York: Springer, 2012. Print.
Beitler, Michael. Strategic Organizational Learning, North Carolina: Practitioner Press International, 2010. Print.
Chivu, Iulia, and Dan Popescu. “Human Resources Management in the Knowledge Management.” Economic Informatics magazine 4.48 (2008): 54-60. Print.
Daniels, Aubrey, and Jon Bailey. Performance Management: Changing Behavior that Drives Organizational Performance, London: Performance Management Publications, 2014. Print.
Northhouse, Peter. Leadership: Theory and Practice, Thousand Oaks, Sage, 2015. Print.
Smither, James, and Manuel London. Performance Management: Putting Research into Action, Hoboken: Pfeiffer, 2009. Print.