Organizations allow people “to jointly increase specializations and division of labor, use large-scale technology, manage the external environment, economize on transaction costs, and exert power and control” (Aswathappa 4). However, the organizational process would be impossible without Human Resource Management. Human Resource Management is a system that is aimed to control and manage human resources or people who work in organizations: “employees must be placed in the right position, properly trained, given feedback and the opportunity of contribution” (Mathis et al. 8). To achieve the efficiency of the organizational process, human resource managers use the study of human behavior in organizational settings.
International and Domestic Human Resource Management
The international Human Resource Management is focused on the human resources in the international context and performs the management outside of national borders (Harzing and Pinnington 78). On the contrary, the domestic Human Resource Management is performed within the national borders. According to Harzing and Pinnington, the main difference of the International Human Resource Management from the domestic Human Resource Management is that it follows “not just more rules and regulations but also more stringent international policies like those related to taxation at the international location of work, employment protocols, language requirements, and special work permits” (80). The domestic Human Resource Management, as Harzing and Pinnington continue, follow the rules and regulations that concern “local taxation and ordinary employment-related issues” (80).
Human Resource Management in the U.S. and Asia
Although the idea of the Human Resource Management was expressed by the American specialists in the 1960s and 1970s, the development of this concept was “influenced by the increasing competition of manufacturing production predominately in East Asia, including Japan and the so-called ‘Four Asian Tigers’, namely Hong Kong, Singapore, South Korea and Taiwan” (Varma and Budhwar 35). Budhwar and Debrah state that the U.S. Human Resource Management uses the individualist and unitarist approaches and plays the “leadership role on influencing and forming management philosophies, policies, programs, practices and processes” (33). On the contrary, the Asian model of Human Resource Management employs the collective approach, placing harmony and relational-based business operation before individualism (e.g. social network approach).
There are different definitions of the word “team”, and the term “teamwork” has become rather fashionable these days. The work in a team occurs when two or more participants with complementary professional skills and knowledge share their professional background in achieving common goals. Modern organizations have recognized the importance of teamwork because, as Mullins states, “certain tasks can be performed only through the combined efforts of a number of individuals working together” (306).
In a newly formed work team, a manager employs a four-step development strategy: “forming, storming, norming, and performing” (Mullins 310). At the forming stage, members are asked to define the purpose of the team and ways how to achieve team success. At the storming stage, the opinions should be expressed more openly and forcefully. This might lead to conflicts, but this stage is important because, if successful, there would be discussions of ways how to reform the existing order of working mechanism. The norming stage helps to develop norms of behavior and a plan for further activity. The performing stage shows the efficiency of the previous three stages, demonstrating the cohesiveness of the team, allowing it the control over the working process in effective cooperation. A team leader has to manage the workflow of the team and help to establish the trust relationships between the members of the team.
Aswathappa, Kenneth. “Group Dynamics.” Organizational Behavior, edited by Sreedharan Radhakrishnan Nair, Global Media, 2010, pp. 352-370.
Budhwar, Pawan, and Yaw Debrah. Human Resource Management in Developing Countries. Routledge, 2013.
Harzing, Anne-Wil, and Ashly Pinnington. International Human Resource Management. Sage, 2010.
Mathis, Robert, et al. Human Resource Management. Nelson Education, 2016.
Mullins, Laurie. Management and Organisational Behaviour. Pearson education, 2007.
Varma, Arup, and Pawan Budhwar. Managing Human Resources in Asia-Pacific. Routledge, 2013.