Describe Yukl’s multiple-linkage model: types of variables, interaction among variables, strengths, and weaknesses
Gary Yukl is credited for having established the multiple linkage model of leadership. According to his assertions, the performance of work is dependant on multiple variables. These include the subordinate effort; the subordinate ability; organization of work or task structure; teamwork and cooperation; availability of resources and the external synchronization of work unit operations. The leader has to influence situational variables while offering leadership. In this case, the leader influences the intervening variables directly, and the perceived importance of the intervening variables (Yukl, 2010).
In offering leadership, the leader relies on periodical intervention. The leader may intervene after short periods to align the shortages identified in the intervening variables. Also, the leader may intervene after spans of a long time. This is aimed at ensuring that the situation remains conducive for leadership and performance. This can be achieved through influencing subordinates in internalizing organizational values and beliefs; developing skills among the subordinates through selection and training; initiating new products and activities; and modifying the formal structure of the unit among other means (Yukl, 2010).
One aspect of this model is that it can be used in explaining situations in which things may appear to be overwhelming and out of control irrespective of the influence of the leader. This is due to the realization that situational factors play a vital role in determining the general outcome. On the other hand, it can be argued that this model is complex, and it only gives an overall perspective that offers a leader with guidance in thinking. In this case, it is neither a refined nor proven theory (Yukl, 2010).
Explain the basic characteristics of and differences between charismatic and transformational leadership and cite examples of each type of leader
There are various kinds of leadership in organizations. Among them are charismatic and transformational leadership. Transformational and charismatic leadership models give important clues concerning effective leadership. Charismatic leadership is common among the top management of the organization and is rarely found in other levels of the organization. Some of the charismatic leaders do not necessarily possess a systematic transformational effect upon their followers. In most instances, they arise during particular situations. Also, charismatic leaders focus on themselves and often rely on the emotions of their followers. Such leaders are known to create short-term changes in organizations. They take pride when they have subservient followers and that, they often seek personal loyalty. Charismatic leaders in most instances have good public speaking skills and highly rely on emotions. Such leaders may be geared towards goals that are different from the stated ones; and may only serve the interest of the leader (Yukl, 2010). The world has witnessed various charismatic leaders including former California Governor, Arnold Schwarzenegger, Nelson Mandela, Mohandas Gandhi, and Martin Luther King Jr. among others.
On the other hand, transformational leadership exists at all levels of the organization. Transformational leaders enable their followers to forego their interests to realize a conceptual cause. Such leaders emerge at any time, and their emphasis is on the task, the wellbeing of the organization, and the supporters. They often engage in the creation and sustenance of change in the organization, their supporters, and themselves. They seek to fortify the supporters, making them independent. They often have strong ethical standards and seek to adhere to ideals. It is not necessary that transformational leaders must have good public speaking skills. They are known to act as change agents and problem solvers in the organization (Yukl, 2010). The late Apple CEO, Steve Jobs, can be described as a good example of transformational leaders in the modern world.
Creating change often means developing a new vision for the organization. Discuss four key factors in developing a good vision for change and the role leaders should play in the change process
There is no doubt that change is an important aspect of organizations today. The creation of change means that the management has to establish a new vision for the organization. Four critical factors are involved in the establishment of a good vision for change. They include pressure for change; a clear shared vision; capacity for change; and action. The pressure for change is the driving force that may come from the senior management or the customers of the organization. This may also emanate from regulatory bodies like the Integrated Pollution Prevention and Control among others (Cummings & Worley, 2009).
Besides, a clear, shared vision is necessary for effective change in the organization. In this respect, change has to be implemented at all levels and should be entrenched in the organizational culture. All stakeholders in the organization are motivated by the same things including a sense of pride, security, recognition, and happiness among others. Capacity for change is also an important aspect of realizing effective change in an organization. This refers to resources which include employees and financial resources in the organization. Lastly, there is the action which is the last key factor in the effective realization of change in an organization. This encompasses the implementation of the planned change (Cummings & Worley, 2009).
Leaders play a vital role in the change process within an organization. Leaders are meant to guide the change process that occurs in the organization. Leading the change process is one of the most challenging aspects of the organization. Leaders can be regarded as agents of change in the organization. Therefore, leaders must guide the change process and ensure that it is meant for the good of the organization (Cummings & Worley, 2009).
Cummings, T. G. & Worley, C. G. (2009). Organization development & change. Australia; Mason, OH: South-Western/Cengage Learning.
Yukl, G. (2010). Leadership in organizations seventh edition. New York: Pearson.