Phenomenon of the Kite: IT Metrics Metamodel (KMM)

Summary

The article in question dwells upon the use of the KITE.IT Metrics Metamodel (KMM) in the sphere of Italian aerospace industry. It has been acknowledged that Business Process Management (BPM) concentrates on the process changes as regards such aspects as, design, execution, monitoring of processes and information systems (Azzini et al. 73). The project under consideration is aimed at addressing these issues. The KITE.IT has been assessed through the survey carried out in organizations utilizing the project. The aspects analyzed included connection of metric and the analysis paradigm, multiple objectives, connection of metric definition and measurement workflow, connection of metric definition and observation context and so on. Users find it efficient and convenient to use.

The KMM involves four primary areas: measurement area, observation area, computation area and visualization area. The measurement area describes strategic objectives. The metamodel includes such perspectives as Value, Financial, Processes, Learning and development, Network. The observation area describes conditions of metric observation regarding the validity timeframe. It enables users to identify objectives achievement. The computation area describes procedures that should be implemented in addition to the ones assessed by the metric. Finally, the visualization area enables the users to obtain the most efficient visualization of different data structures.

The article involves a brief description of the test implemented to assess the KMM (Azzini et al. 81). The assessment was carried out in the educational sphere, and the data of students including IDs, attendance, performance and thesis evaluation were used in the project. The users reported that the project was operating well, and all major requirements were met. It has been found that the KMM successfully supports the connection between multiple objectives and metrics. It is also concluded that the metric definition “can be more general with respect to other approaches” available in the literature (Azzini et al. 84). The KMM will be later used and assessed in the industrial setting. The results of the test implemented will be taken into account.

Discussion

The article is relevant for the research aimed at the development of improvements in project dynamics through the efficiency of knowledge management sharing system. First, it is necessary to note that knowledge management is now linked to the efficient performance of organizations as well as customers’ satisfaction. The knowledge management has been extensively employed in many fields, but its use in the terrain of project management has been long underdeveloped (Cunha et al. 233). At that, there is a strong need for the development of the new generation of knowledge management systems.

Researchers and practitioners have tried to develop such paradigms to align knowledge management and project management (Handzic and Durmic 402). It has been acknowledged that such models can significantly increase the efficiency of project management models. It is possible to note that the article in question also contributes to this field as it provides insights into the effective use of the KM system that enables users to assess various processes (Azzini et al. 75). The users can identify goals, processes aimed at achieving them, and they can also evaluate the effectiveness of procedures and performance.

Apart from the attention to multiple processes, it is essential to ensure the use of heterogeneous data in the knowledge management system. The article in question concentrates on the project that involves assessment of various data. However, many researchers emphasize the relevance of the use of tacit (pertaining to informal practices) and explicit (pertaining to formal procedures) knowledge in knowledge management. Thus, researchers state that tacit knowledge has a significant positive impact on the customer’s satisfaction and employees’ performance while explicit knowledge is often associated with negative outcomes (Brito et al. 171).

More so, it has been found that explicit information negatively affects knowledge sharing within organizations (Block and Khatova 120). This leads to the decrease of employees’ motivation and lower performance. Clearly, both forms of information should be managed properly. It is noteworthy that there are certain advances in this area as some systems using MEMORAe approach have been employed to take into account tacit and explicit data when developing efficient knowledge management systems (Arduin et al. 70). The overall performance of the organization was improved due to the utilization of such systems.

Finally, it is clear that proper information sharing is an important factor in the development of employees’ motivation (Bayram and Demirtel 100). Both types of data can have certain effects on information sharing and, as a result, employees’ satisfaction. Some researchers concentrate on the use of such systems as wikis in knowledge sharing. For instance, it is stressed that wikis can be “primary tools” for collaborative content (Ferreira 350).

The use of wikis has proved to affect employees’ motivation positively. It is also found that wikis can be successfully applicable in small project-based companies (Bolisani, Scarso and Giuman 146). The utilization of these tools is beneficial for knowledge exchange within the organization. Importantly, both types of information (tacit and explicit) are involved, but the major focus is still made on formal data.

The metamodel assessed in the article in question can be utilized to improve the efficacy of knowledge management. At that, it is important to take into account the findings as regards project management, the use of heterogeneous data and efficient knowledge exchange. As has been mentioned above, KITE.IT Metrics Metamodel handles multiple data, which increases its usability and potential outcomes for users.

However, it is clear that only explicit data are analyzed through the KMM. The focus on explicit data can have adverse effects on the overall project or the entire organization’s performance especially when it comes for-profit organizations (Block and Khatova 120). Therefore, the next generation of the KMM system should be more holistic especially when it comes to industries. Tacit information should be incorporated into the bulk of data used in the metamodel.

As far as the use of the metamodel in project management, it is necessary to note that it can have many positive effects. The measurement and observation areas, as well as the visualization area, play the key role in this process. The KMM enables users to identify objectives and trace major achievements as well as failures (Azzini et al. 77). Therefore, the model is applicable to the project management. More so, it can be an efficient platform to provide a link between knowledge management and project management.

When it comes to knowledge sharing, the system described in the article in question is less transparent. The tools of knowledge exchange are not described, and there are chances that the system does not have an efficient platform for knowledge exchange. The KMM can be improved through the use of wikis that will enhance participation of employees in the project. It will also increase their motivation and performance. Again, it is crucial to make sure that employees will be able to share explicit as well as tacit information.

Limitations

Although the article in question may have various implications, it has a number of limitations as well. First, it can hardly be generalized. The KMM model was employed in the educational setting, but it is not clear whether it will be as effective in other settings. The authors argue that the metamodel can help assess various processes and projects, but the example provided has little to do with such use (Azzini et al. 77). It is clear that the system can handle multiple data in the educational sphere.

The way processes can be accessed with the help of the project are not included in the article. It is clear that the system can be applied to evaluate people’s performance. However, the authors do not provide a paradigm associated with assessing processes, which are essential for project management. More so, the number of participants of the research is insufficient to generalize the data. The samples are quite homogeneous as they pertain to the same sphere. Since the analysis of data is based on the self-report approach, a certain degree of bias is possible. It is necessary to develop a particular measurement system to access the efficacy of the metamodel.

Future Prospects

The authors of the article in question state that the further research will involve testing the system with the use of “industrial data sets”, and will also aim at diminishing the issues revealed during the initial testing (Azzini et al. 85). However, in the view of the limitations discussed and the data obtained through the survey, it is possible to identify more areas of concern. Thus, the further research should address a number of spheres. It is important to draw closer attention to the knowledge management in the project management perspective. The KMM should provide the user-friendly system that will be applicable in project management. It is essential to make sure that the visualization area receives sufficient attention.

The metamodel should involve analysis of explicit and tacit data. It is important to develop the efficient tools to ensure availability of the two types of information. Clearly, the major focus should be made on explicit data while tacit information should also be present in the KMM. At that, it can be beneficial to include tacit data as optional information and access the efficacy of this type of the metamodel. If its efficiency is apparent, it will be possible to pay more attention to this type of data.

Another area related to information management is the development of knowledge exchange tools. Employees should play an active role in the development of the KITE.IT Metrics Metamodel system. Employees should be encouraged to share both explicit and tacit data. Wikis can be employed to achieve this goal. At that, it is also possible to try using corporate social networks, especially when it comes to tacit data exchange. Clearly, these data should be incorporated into the KMM.

Furthermore, the improved metamodel should be tested in different types of organizations and different industries. It is essential to understand the effects of the use of the model in multinationals as well as small companies. For-profit, governmental and non-profit organizations can differently respond to the utilization of the KITE.IT Metrics Metamodel. When testing the project, it is also essential to analyze such aspects as employees’ satisfaction and performance, customers’ satisfaction, the organizations’ performance. The measurement system should also involve the analysis of such aspects as projects’ success (including but not confined to the project’s timeframe, stakeholders’ benefits and adverse effects).

Conclusions

On balance, it is possible to note that the article in question provides insights into the use of a particular system that can improve project management procedures through the enhancement of efficacy of knowledge management. The KMM system can be effectively utilized in organizations that employ a project-based approach. The system focuses on such areas as measurement, observation, computation, and visualization. The users have acknowledged benefits of the system. However, there are some limitations as the data provided in the article can hardly be generalized.

Therefore, the further research is essential. The research should address the following aspects: knowledge exchange, the use of heterogeneous data and applicability in different settings. The future research may involve the use of wikis and corporate social networks, testing in different types of organizations. It is clear that proper information and knowledge management are essential for companies. However, there is the lack of research that links project management to knowledge management. Therefore, the research on the use of the KMM system may significantly expand the boundaries of the available scope of literature on the matter. It will also enable companies to manage various projects and achieve goals set within the necessary timeframe.

Works Cited

Arduin, Pierre Emmanuel, Julien LeDuigou, Diana Penciuc, Marie Hélène Abeland Benoît Eynard. “Knowledge Sharing Within Extended Enterprises: Case of Product Lifecycle Management Systems.” The 15th European Conference on Knowledge Management. Santarem: The Santarem School of Management and Technology Polytechnic Institute of Santarem, 2014. Print.

Azzini, Antonia, Paolo Caravolo, Ernesto Damiani, Nello Scarabottolo, Francesco Zavatarelli, Claudia Vicari, and Vincenzo Savarino. “Heterogeneous Business Process Management: A Metamodel-Based Approach.” Knowledge Management in Organizations. Ed. Lorna Uden, Marjan Hericko and I-Hsien Ting. Stoke-on-Trent: Springer, 2015. 73-86. Print.

Bayram, Özlem Gökkurt, and Hakan Demirte. “Effect of ICT on Information Sharingin Enterprises: The Case of Ministry of Development.” The 15th European Conference on Knowledge Management. Santarem: The Santarem School of Management and Technology Polytechnic Institute of Santarem, 2014. Print.

Block, Madeleine, and Tatiana Khvatova. “Developing an Interactive View on Intra-Organisational Knowledge Sharing.” The 15th European Conference on Knowledge Management. Santarem: The Santarem School of Management and Technology Polytechnic Institute of Santarem, 2014. Print.

Bolisani, Ettore, Enrico Scarso, and Luca Giuman. “Wiki as a Knowledge Management System in a Small Project-Based Company: Benefits, Issues and Managerial Challenges.” The 15th European Conference on Knowledge Management. Santarem: The Santarem School of Management and Technology Polytechnic Institute of Santarem, 2014. Print.

Brito, Elisabeth, Leonor Pais, Lisete Mónico, and Liliana Jorge. “Knowledge Management in Municipalities: What Affects Customer Satisfaction?” The 15th European Conference on Knowledge Management. Santarem: The Santarem School of Management and Technology Polytechnic Institute of Santarem, 2014. Print.

Cunha, José Adson, José Figueiredo, Florinda Matos and João Thomaz. “Knowledge Managementon PMO’s Perspective: A Systematic Review.” The 15th European Conference on Knowledge Management. Santarem: The Santarem School of Management and Technology Polytechnic Institute of Santarem, 2014. Print.

Ferreira, Vitor Hugodos Santos. “Wiki as a Knowledge Management Tool: The Case of a Non-Profit Administrative Entity.” The 15th European Conference on Knowledge Management. Santarem: The Santarem School of Management and Technology Polytechnic Institute of Santarem, 2014. Print.

Handzic, Meliha, and Nermina Durmic. “Merging Knowledge Management with Project Management.” The 15th European Conference on Knowledge Management. Santarem: The Santarem School of Management and Technology Polytechnic Institute of Santarem, 2014. Print.