Knowledge delivery transfer and management has over the years been a topic of interest for many researcher s and educational scientists. Subsequently they have developed tested and tried numerous methods of training that go a long way in delivering accurate and relevant information and knowledge to the learner with the aim of preparing them for the job market and employment.
The methods have evolved to embrace the concept of onsite training of employees to ensure that they are well equipped with recent and relevant skills to allow the company or employer to bear a competitive edge as against his competitors (Baldwin p, 147-154.)
Despite the plethora of theories and approaches to training and knowledge management there is a correlated reference e and dependency on the traditional methods of training. These methods have stood the test of time and relevance and continue to offer quality alternatives to the contemporary and modernist approaches to training (Bretz, p 941-951).
I shall discuss the major traditional methods of raining with an objective of substantiating their claim of relevance and applicability today. I shall discuss the three major traditional approaches to training in the contemporary modern context.
The three major traditional methods of training are as follows.
There are a variety of presentation methods that are available to a trainer in delivering knowledge and information to his trainees through presentation. A standard lecture for instance allows the trainer to interact with the trainees by speaking listening and receiving information from them. Team teaching on the other hand allows the trainees to receive information from more than one trainer. Each trainer focuses on an independent topic or present different arguments of the same topic of interest.
The guest speaker presentation method involves engaging a guest speaker who is ether an expert or professional in the field or topic that the learners are studying (Eiko p34-90). The guest receives a limited time plot over which they are required to speak on the topic.
Panels on the other hand involve two or more speakers who make presentations at training sessions and stimulate discussion on the topic of interest while engaging the trainees. Student presentations also allow the individuals or groups of trainees to participate actively in the training process. They are allowed to make presentations on individual topics during the session.
Hands on methods
These methods engage the active participation of the trainees into eh training process. They include on the job training methods, case scenarios theme plays and games as well as simulations that aim at engaging the trainee’s practical skills and abilities. On the job, training is applied mostly to new employees who are undergoing the orientation process of getting to know the mannerisms of operations in the organization (Siti et al, pp 1-70).
The on the job training approach has several alternative methods at its disposure including self-directed learning as well as apprenticeship. Self directed learning for instance allows the trainee to assume the responsibility for majority of components in the learning process. The trainer therefore serves to facilitate the progress of the trainee in the learning process. The learning content is therefore prepared for the learner well in advance and allows them to learn at their own pace.
Role-play on the other hand allows the learner to participate in specific aspects of the application stages of the training process. Behavioral modeling allows the trainee to learn from a model who is considered to bear the ideal behaviors that are required of the trainees.
They are therefore left to observe and learn from the models job performance and implement the observations in their own work situations. Application planning ensures that the trainees prepared and well equipped to apply the key behaviors on the job to aid the conveyance of the knowledge to other trainees (Siti et al, pp 1-70). It therefore requires the employee to enter into written agreements o trainer follow up records that are aimed at preventing time relapses.
Apprenticeship as a hand on method involves engaging the trainee in the practice o the actual job to allow them to learn from practice and observation from the trainer. This is most appropriate in skill programs. Simulation on the other hand employs real life situations by involving trainees in actions that produce consequences that are similar to the actual job. It therefore operates on an artificial risk factor.
Group building methods
These approaches to learning and training are structured to increase the effectiveness of team based learning experiences. The experimental learning approach for instance engages a stage based learning process that begins by acquiring the conceptual knowledge and theory (Neomi, pp 3-60). This is then followed by behavior simulation and an analysis of the activity. The final stage links the theory to the activity based on real life consequences and results.
Team training on the other hand creates a connection between the inputs of the team based on knowledge attitude and character as well as the team’s ability t reaches the common objective through participation (Neomi, pp 3-60). Team training is achieved through cross training coordinated training team leader training and action learning that aim at developing the individual and group abilities in the team.
The appropriateness or other wise of training method depends on the situation and circumstance of the trainees and the knowledge being delivered. Group training methods are the most appropriate methods for individual as well as team learning while the majority of hands on methods are appropriate for structural learning and are better than presentation methods due o their ability to maintain a conducive learning environment (Neomi, pp 3-60).
The choice of the training method should be influenced by the type of learning result or training effect as well as the degree of subscription of the method to learning objectives and knowledge transfer.
Baldwin, Timothy. Effects of alternative modeling strategies on outcomes of interpersonal-skills training. Journal of Applied Psychology, Vol 77(2), (1992), 147-154.
Bretz, Robert et al.Comparing traditional and integrative learning methods in organizational training programs.Journal of Applied Psychology, Vol 77(6), 1992, 941-951.
Eiko, Wataya. Capacity Development and Training: Blended Learning Program. Community, Environment and Disaster Risk Management, Volume: 6, 2011 p34-90
Neomi Kaplan-Mor, et al.A comparative analysis of end-user training methods. Journal of Systems and Information Technology Volume: 13 Issue: 1 2011 pp 3-60
Siti, Fardaniah et al.Stimulating.training motivation using the right training characteristic. Industrial and Commercial Training Volume: 43 Issue: 1 2011 pp 1-70