Connecting People With Others Who Are Knowledgeable

Subject: Management
Pages: 22
Words: 6071
Reading time:
21 min
Study level: PhD

Introduction

At Monsanto, the need to create a connection between its pool of employees and other professionals who are deemed more knowledgeable is imperative. Although the company boasts of sustained growth and profitability in its production of Genetically Modified foods, it has realized that it still needs to tap human knowledge from outside sources o that it can supplement its knowledge base. At this point, it is pertinent to note that knowledge management does not entail full reliance on the human resource developed by the company. Other external sources of knowledge are equally paramount in steering growth and profitability (Firestone & McElroy, 2003).

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Theoretical overview

As already mentioned, knowledge is bestowed in people. Successful companies especially in the line of knowledge management often invest in people since the later superficially stores the much need knowledge. Indeed, one way of achieving better knowledge management is by developing stronger networks between company employees and other professionals. This can be termed as a professional network and its main purpose is to exchange, disseminate as well as compare the available knowledge. In addition, connecting people with other sources of knowledge entails developing a rigorous capacity and building program. This can be achieved through training, workshops and seminars. Although such undertaking is quite often done in a periodic manner, it is quite necessary for companies involve d in serious information management to adopt the system as a continuous an on-going process throughout the life of an organisation (Chaffey & Wood, 2006). Unless this is done, new innovative methods of production may be missed out and consequently lose out in the market competition.

Reference to Monsanto case study

Monsanto has put more emphasis on information management in its quest for market leadership in the production of GM foods. Although the company has undertaken massive investments in the line of knowledge and information management even as it implements its technological platform, one is of concern has been on the technicality of connecting its own pool of professionals with external sources of knowledge. According to the company, information is generated and consumed by people hence the need to continually bear in mind the end justifies the means. In the case study, the means primarily refer to human knowledge that drives the company on a day-to-day basis. In addition, the management at Monsanto has a strong belief that although information technology is a vital tool in precipitating growth and profitability in a highly competitive and dynamic market, it is not an adequate requirement on matters of knowledge creation as well as connecting with others sources of information in a bid to share knowledge.

Furthermore, the management at Monsanto believe that knowledge can only be created, stored and utilized if and only if people are managed in a proper manner. Hence, the first objective at Monsanto largely focuses on the best way to manage people since they have the sole dominion to knowledge. For this reason, the company has initiated an equipping program for its people. This program is intrinsically aimed at not only acquiring external and innovative sources of knowledge from other knowledge able people, it also implies making use of its own pool of professionals who have whose knowledge capacity has been reinforced by the company.

In other separate but related developments, the company has laid much emphasis on the development, nurturing and sustain of networks that are perceived to be relatively significant in the sharing of knowledge. Connecting people through a network of knowledge has been one of the major inputs of the company for a sometime. This network forms the basis through which communication mechanisms can be launched. The management at Monsanto believes that it is not possible to connect its employees with other knowledgeable individuals if a proper platform is not in place. When the right stage has been instituted, a collective understanding between the various sources of knowledge and its people can be enhanced. Moreover, the creation of knowledge networks between the employees of Monsanto company and other knowledgeable people has been deemed as one potential pathway for ‘sense making’ forum. Unless knowledge is shared in both a horizontal and vertical manner, it may not seem to make much sense. Nonetheless, the company has now been left with the task of working out modalities for creating a sustainable and vibrant system of network

Recommendations and conclusions

The Company should seek otherwise of connecting of his people with a team of high skilled professionals over and above the team is currently used. In other words it is imperative for the company to adopt a system of network which will reach out for a team of professionals far beyond the current level. Secondly, capacity building and training of its own employees should be used as the basis for recruiting and tapping new knowledge which can then be used to offer further training to the existing pool of the employees. This will not only lower the cost of connecting its people to other knowledgeable sources of information, but to also be convenient in terms of time and accessibility. Finally, the company should adopt and implement a high end technological platform that will harness both the existing and prospected knowledge (Firestone & McElroy, 2003).

Connecting people with information

Introduction

As already mentioned people and information as far as knowledge management is concerned cannot be separated (Henczel, 2001). It is imperative to note that information is generated by people who by far and large are the main architects of steering the growth and profitability of the Monsanto Company.

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Information technology is the main channel through which people with various professional backgrounds can be connected. However, the adoption and implementation of modern information technology is an issue that require managerial decision since major investments cannot be avoided when adopting a modern system of IT platform (Antonelli, Geuna & Steinmueller, 2000).

Theoretical Overview

Merging knowledge in an organization requires values paths. In connection to this an organization is expected to harmonize and re-engineer its workforce through a recognizable and well outlined hierarchy. In order to connect people with the right information each individual worker should not only be placed in an environment that is rich in information but should also be equipped in a smarter way on how to use the very information (Maier, 2007).

Furthermore, it is pertinent to note that for a organization to attain a competitive edge in dynamic market, employees should be motivated using the various motivational means available. Although each organization often crave for growth and profitability, the latter may not be achieved unless its people are well connected or endowed with the right information (Antonelli, Geuna & Steinmueller, 2000).

In order to create a platform where by knowledge can be shared among the employees, prospective organization ought to adopt and embrace externalization, socialization, internalization and combination model. When the four elements are properly harnessed knowledge can be created within a short span of time and also be made available to employees. Indeed, this should be the right way to place people in an environment that is conducive and enriched with viable information.

Reference to the Study

According to the management of at Monsanto, building technology can place its people at the right information. Although technology alone cannot be used to generate and disseminate information, the company believes that the development of a variable technological platform can be the right recipe in connecting people with information.

Firstly, people can be placed at the right source of information through the process of socialization. At this point, the company has vested more interest in its people since it cannot implement any of its five objectives without relying fully on the professional inputs of its people. When employees socialize, the management at Monsanto has a conviction that they will be in position to gather, process, disseminate and eventually utilize information obtained from peer workers. Although the company does not explicitly explain or elaborate on how its employees socialize as part of gathering knowledge, it is evident that the company has an elaborate programme that enhances the interaction of its people (Maier, 2007).

The company largely works toward facilitating knowledge availability to its workers not only within the employees themselves but also from other external sources. For instance, Monsanto has ensured that its employees are well connected with external sources of knowledge such as internet, and other professionals who have various abilities in different fields.

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To date the company has facilitated various information initiatives that enables its employees to gain access to knowledge through search engines and data warehousing. Besides, Monsanto is also making use of internet capabilities within its own establishments so that the employees are in a position to access information related to the company and their job descriptions including their roles and responsibilities on a day to day basis.

Moreover, the company has also developed software that enhances a collaborative work group. This software enables workers to coordinate various company activities and events without necessarily attending a common gathering. The development of this device has enabled workers to reduce time engagement especially in events when group work and group initiatives are needed. However, team building exercises may not necessarily use this software and as a result, the management of the company has created an alternative solution as will be discussed later.

In order to enhance information sharing among workers, the company has data warehouse which acts as repositories in data storage and management. This is very important since vital information can be stored and retrieved by the workers of the company. In addition, the company aims at linking the various repositories so that its people cannot only obtain the much needed information but also be able to navigate the data warehouse in a simplified and transparent manner. On the same note, the management is in a position to improve and expedite the process of data analysis and decision making as part of performance evaluation.

Recommendations and Conclusions

The four models of creating knowledge so that employees have the right disposal of information is indeed a challenge to the company. In relying with this, it is imperative for the company to support all the four elements needed in creating knowledge and information. This will be only way through which the company will benefit from an upward spiral of creating knowledge (Antonelli, Geuna & Steinmueller, 2000).

Hence, one way of improving knowledge placement within the Monsanto Company is by enhancing connections among the four components namely socialization, internalization, externalization and combination.

Secondly, the company should bear in mind that people and information are indeed crucial in its management policies. Therefore, the company ought to incorporate and integrate the needs of its workers even as it pursues growth and profitability (Chaffey & Wood, 2006).

Finally, the Monsanto Company should embrace new information technology skills and repositories so that its information base is not only dynamic but also resilient with ever changing market needs. This will especially be important bearing in mind that the company is currently engaged in scientific production of genetically modified foods, an areas of production which is still under research and development.

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Enhancing the transformation of information to knowledge

Introduction

Basic information may not be beneficial as far as knowledge is concerned. In order to make use of information, it must be transferred or converted to potential knowledge. Most organizations often rely on generating information but forget the fact that unless the very information is transformed into a usable format, it may be an exercise in futility. In most organization today, managers have a general understanding that information and knowledge are two important parameters in the process of management (Antonelli, Geuna & Steinmueller, 2000). In order to improve knowledge management, the right source of information and also a thorough understanding of the same is pertinent. Hence, the conversion of information to knowledge cannot be avoided by any organization that is seeking to grow and attain the desired profitability. In a strict sense, converting information to knowledge cannot be left to the information technology alone. It requires the input of individuals who are critical in daily running of the organization. On the same note, the creation of knowledge completely relies on individuals hired by an organization. Therefore, it is crucial for any organization to acknowledge the fact that the movement of information to useable knowledge cannot be undertaken by machines alone or even the top management of a company (Firestone & McElroy, 2003).

It should therefore, be understood as a crystalline process that demands collaboration among the individuals workers and the management of an organization.

Theoretical overview

Information is potential knowledge. This implies that unless it is processed through a recognizable and credible system, it may lack its meaning and significance. Similarly, information can closely relate to power and authority in an organization although it is not synonymous to knowledge (Chaffey & Wood, 2006).

To begin with, an organization can transform the information to knowledge through cross pollinators and knowledge stewards. This requires an adoption of methodology that can be put in place so that the right channel is followed in achieving the end results. In addition, for an organization to achieve success at various levels, the conversion of information to knowledge should be undertaken in a procedural manner in the sense that each department within an organization is equally impacted by the conversion of information to knowledge. This may not be easily attained especially if there are no supporting system in place as well as performance measures that are used to evaluate the goals and objectives that were earlier set by the organization. Moreover, the conversion of information to knowledge demands a balanced approach whereby people and available technology should be put into focus during the transmission process (Maier, 2007). When the information is adequately transformed into knowledge, it makes it possible for an organization to attain what is referred as knowledge steward.

Reference to the study

According to Monsanto Company, there are two main end products of the conversion of information to knowledge. This has been classified as either internal or external. Moreover, both the external and internal ends have been categorized as either quantitative structured and qualitative unstructured. As the company argues, the end products when information is transferred to knowledge should be précised and map the way forward for the operations of the company.

In addition, the internal factors that are generated when the information is transformed into knowledge include strategic plan, documents, sales, financial, budgeting, monthly reports and LRP. The external factors include information related to the competitor, point of sale, federal register, newswires and financials.

When information is adequately transferred to knowledge, a methodology for utilizing the very knowledge is possible. In spite of the fact that knowledge management methodology appears to be ambiguous, the management at Monsanto believes that it is indeed possible to craft a methodology for managing information that has been converted to knowledge. Furthermore, the company has proposed and implemented information conversion to knowledge using a model that can transform the organization into profitability. One important question and point of concern by the company has been the manner in which the rich pool of information can be converted into knowledge so that the company can improve on its performance.

To this end, the company has drawn what they refer to as a map so that the various pieces of information can be successfully converted into knowledge which is then used to educate the entire workforce of the company by creating an enabling environment to internalize the strategic objectives of the organization. Additionally, an information map can be used to drive the organization in terms of supporting the various elements within the organization as well as facilitating the process of making decisions. According to management at Monsanto the information map can either be structured or unstructured and can be used for the purposes of deriving knowledge from the internal and external environment.

Once the information map has been developed, it can then be transformed into a knowledge map. At this point information is assigned different codes to enhance interpretation and understanding by users. By so doing, the raw information will have been converted into useable knowledge. Therefore, the information map that has been adopted by Monsanto is a clear example of how basic information can be transformed into knowledge for the purposes of management.

The map has several uses. For instance, it assists in the prediction of the strengths and weaknesses within the organization and as a result, the management can take proactive action to correct the weaknesses before any major shortfall is witnessed. On the same note, the company has been using a balanced scorecard that predicts the performance level of the company at any one given time. According to this measure, the organization has the ability to evaluate its performance over a given period of time through thorough evaluation of its employees both at the senior and subordinate levels. Moreover, the scorecard has been designed in a manner that focuses on both the traditional financial nature as well as the non-financial indicators. It is imperative to note that the non-financial indicators are usually very significant in determining the performance rate of an organization.

There are quite a number of firms that make use of balanced scorecard. At any given point of operation within an organization, a balanced scorecard can assist in assessing as well as appraising productivity of a company. However, the scorecards are just information sources which must be interpreted or converted into knowledge before use. According to Monsanto case study, a balanced scorecard can be used as a methodology in managing knowledge in an organization. The management of the company gives two main reasons why a balanced scorecard is indeed a potential source of information.

Firstly, the company believes that knowledge and performance are part and parcel of growth. In this case, knowledge acts as a fuel towards attaining the desired performance. However, this knowledge must be a transformation of information from credible sources like a balanced scorecard. Second, the scorecard has been used by the management of the company to track down the impact of the transformation of information to knowledge. Therefore, the use of balanced scorecards as well as the maps has assisted the company not only to store data but also retrieve, manipulate and integrate various information sources.

Lastly, an information technology map has been utilized by Monsanto as a support tool for managing the transformed knowledge within the organization. This map makes use of the existing information technology infrastructure and it is very significant not only in the conversion of information to knowledge but also setting the right stage for the information sharing and networking.

Recommendations and Conclusions

Although Monsanto has made great strides towards the achievements of its information and knowledge management goals, there is still room for improvement due to the ever demanding and changing needs of the market. For instance, the company should not completely rely on the current information sources such as the maps and scorecards. It is highly likely that the needs of the company will soon surpass the information and knowledge exchange platform that has been put into place.

Moreover, it is high time for the company to outsource most of its information-knowledge needs instead of depending on its own ability to host information technology infrastructure for converting raw information to knowledge (Antonelli, Geuna & Steinmueller, 2000). Similarly, this will also reduce the operational cost of the company since much of the overheads needed to transform information to knowledge will not be catered for by the company. It will be cheaper for the Monsanto Company to hire rather than set up its own platform for information and knowledge dissemination. Furthermore, the company should adopt a holistic approach in managing knowledge that has been transformed from information. Research incentives should be shared especially those related to knowledge, people must be involved in every stage of information conversion to knowledge and finally the different roles played by attained knowledge should be reorganized to reflect the needs of the company.

Encapsulating knowledge for quick transfer

Introduction

Once information has been transferred into knowledge, it’s imperative to sum it up for quick transfer or dissemination from one party to another. Delayed information may equally hinder operation within an organization. In fact, most organizations that often reports low productivity and unsustainable profit. Usually face the challenge of being unable to bundle together the various information packages for easy storage, processing, retrieval and dissemination (Firestone & McElroy, 2003). Although they are current highly modern forms of packaging information, the challenge is ever growing for organizations to note only adopt system that are user friendly to workforce but also those that cater for the most current needs of the organization in as far as competition and market rivalry is concerned.

Theoretical Overview

A system for transferring knowledge can be developed in a way that expert workers can transmit or disseminate knowledge to subordinate staff located in the remote locations (Antonelli, Geuna & Steinmueller, 2000). This can also be one way of outsourcing for human resource means for an organization. In order for knowledge to be transferred efficiently and quickly, there should be a memory system in place which has been configured to store knowledge and transfer it to the designated location within the very short period of time (Chaffey & Wood, 2006).

For such a system to work as expected there should be a coding programme to enable easier identification of the stored and disseminated messengers. In this regard the systems within the technological knowledge transfer must collaborate in order for the desired knowledge to be transmitted. Therefore, a transfer plan which consist of a configured data alongside programme code launched in a common portable and which is also monitored to deliver a particular task constitute a complete system for encapsulating and transferring knowledge with minimal delay.

The modern innovations that cater for knowledge transfer system are in place. However, an organization can only make use of certain knowledge transfer system that suits it. For instance, organizations that carry outsourcing programmes for client in remote locations may find knowledge transfer systems to be of great help in their operations.

Hence proper use of a knowledge transfer system may hasten the processed of sending information to the target group. It is also cost effective to transmit knowledge using the most effective system within an organization. In most cases, processed information which is in form of knowledge is consolidated into a single bundle so that clients or employees within an organization can access the required knowledge as a single package but not separate pieces. Nonetheless it is vital for organizations to standardize their system for disseminating knowledge so that it can be interpreted and also utilized by the end users in a friendlier manner. Additionally knowledge dissemination requires the use of strict security code to enhance safety and reliability of knowledge sent.

Finally, knowledge dissemination can also take the form of personal interaction through verbal communication. However this form of disseminating knowledge has proved to be very costly and also time consuming bearing in mind that the conveyer of the message has to travel from one location to another (Henczel, 2001).

Reference to the Case Study

The Monsanto Company has one of the best and elaborate most of disseminating knowledge within and without its operational environment. As the manager of the company admits, the system is indeed working since the company has not only explored what they refer to as “white spaces” but also ventured into both existing and prospective business deals. It is crucial to understand that the company has fared well in the field of biotechnology. One way through which the company is disseminating knowledge is through the use of modern technologies for example, reaching out for its wide client base requires an open and more versatile mode of communication.

Currently the company is making use of yellow pages in relaying data and discrete information both to the client and its workforce. Through the yellow pages, the company profile can be assessed.

Recommendations for Monsanto

A well established knowledge system lays the role of availing processed knowledge to all interested users within a business environment. Moreover, the knowledge is provided in a format that is easy to access and understand. In environments where knowledge plays an integral role of power, the probability of failure as far a knowledge management is concerned is rather high. It is against this backdrop that the following recommendations have been put forward. Monsanto can make use of the proposals highlighted below in a bid to improve its productivity in a business atmosphere where knowledge is paramount.

To begin with, it is vital for the management at Monsanto to note that effective knowledge management is a costly affair and unless proper planning and financial engagements are put in place, it is bound to fail. The company should set a scaled team of professionals to specifically deal with matters related to knowledge management. When every employee is involved in knowledge management, a great deal of information may be generated leading to mix-up and confusion and irrelevant information which may not be beneficial to most users. A separate team of professionals should categorically work on the process of knowledge management and deliver results that are consistent and reliable.

Secondly, the management at Monsanto should lay more emphasis on the users of its end-products rather than thinking and investing huge sums in information technology without the end user in mind. In order to host a complete data base, IT professionals have a clear understanding of the technical requirements of the knowledge system. Therefore, they will often push for the development of a data base that is complex and can accomplish multiple searches within a limited time. such a system consumes both time and financial resources and is equally costly to maintain. Therefore, it is recommended that the company should develop IT and Knowledge management systems that can simply meet the need of its users instead of launching a complex system which is just troublesome to clients and company workforce.

Knowledge systems that are complicated and demands users to undergo extra learning are often dismissed by users. The need to develop simple and plainly configured systems should be a priority to Monsanto management. Moreover, the company should also assess and appraise its Knowledge Management system on a regular basis in order to ascertain the workability, suitability and effectiveness of the system.

Monsanto Company should consider the needs of suppliers even as it pursues Knowledge Management of its operations. In this regard, supplies are not only those who avail raw materials and other materials to the company but also those who provide human resource and technical assistance. As much as consumers of its products are concerned, it is equally crucial for the company to raise the benefits of its suppliers from all areas of operations so that they can attract and maintain a huge community of business partners. A good example can be seen when experts provide their services at low costs especially in a business environment where knowledge is potential power.

In addition, Monsanto company should strive at improving the quality of information availed to its users. There are two important parameters that the company should bear in mind when addressing quality of its Knowledge Management platform. Firstly, the content being accessed by clients is of utmost importance. In fact, a client is primarily interested at the content of information. The company should therefore seek to upgrade its content on a regular basis. One way through which Monsanto can improve on the quality of its Knowledge Management content is by creating an interface through which clients can interact with the company management, air their concerns as well as suggest changes to the system. In addition to content, clients and other users are often impressed by the way a given piece of knowledge has been presented. Thus, the company should take it serious on the presentation of its content. In other words, the management should aim at creating knowledge systems that satisfy the needs of consumers. Even as the end users are being catered for, the company will be in the right path towards meeting its broader goals and objectives of growth, sustainability and profitability.

Knowledge users demand and also require a push and pull approach. The Monsanto Company should exercise a pull approach whereby it should avail the information and knowledge needed by consumers. Knowledge pull is the sole responsibility of the company due to the need of the company to go public and be known by various users. This should be a practical step aimed at reaching out and campaigning for the products of the company to the general public.

On the other hand, Monsanto Company should also initiate a push approach whereby information on what knowledge is available should be conveyed to users. Various channels can be used to relay information. For instance, use of electronic mail alongside conducting education sessions for users who are within reach are possible pathways through which the push and pull approach can be utilised by Monsanto.

When the pull approach is used, the end users will be able to perceive the actual worth of the products and service being offered. The Monsanto Company should enhance the pull tactic so that consumers and other users can embrace the knowledge system and see it as equally crucial ion their work. It is also highly recommended that the management of Monsanto to come up with a system of motivation especially to those professionals who are charged with the duty of entering raw data into knowledge systems. Motivating this team of experts in working towards achieving certain set goals and objectives of the organisation cannot be avoided at all. In this regard, a dedicated human resource should be hired so that the supply management can be as effective as possible. In addition, managing the information technology platform that has been established by the company should not be ignored as part of this recommendation. The management of this company should make sure that the right expertise is employed since the process of knowledge management is critical and highly sensitive. A skilled and experienced team of professional will add value in a variety of ways. For instance, the team will be in a position to create as well as format knowledge to be utilised.

Analysis of the SECI stages

Socialization

Social activities and networks form a very important part of socialization at Monsanto. According to this mode, the interaction of individuals enables the transformation of tacit knowledge. However, it is vital to note that tacit knowledge can be acquired by an individual without necessarily using language (Firestone & McElroy, 2003). A phenomenon example is when an apprentice acquires knowledge passed on from the mentor without the application of any form of language (Chaffey & Wood, 2006). In this case, other modes of communicating such as observation, aping and continual practice on the job takes the place of language. A derived example from a business perspective is an individual or employee who is on the job training. In most instances, verbal communication is not eminent. Instead, the trainee acquires the desired knowledge through observation, listening, practice among other non-verbal tools of speech. Usually, the acquisition of tacit knowledge largely relies on job experience. Unless there is a shared experience in place, it may be quite cumbersome to identify with the thinking process of other people.

Moreover, common activities such as group work and team building exercises facilitates tacit knowledge. Examples of common activities and experiences include but not limited to being together, residing in a common environment, or even spending time together. It is not similar to acquiring knowledge from written or verbal source. In real sense, socialization entails acquiring or tapping knowledge via physical nearness. Hence, the capturing of knowledge is made possible through the process of interacting or getting to know each other. From this outset, it is vivid that knowledge acquired through one-on-one interaction can either be through language or non-verbal instructions.

Externalization

When tacit knowledge is expressed, it amounts to externalization. In addition, this mode of knowledge acquisition entails the translation of the same into language format that can be understood by other interested parties. Both the inner and outer boundaries are exposed and can be read and comprehended easily.

The externalization phase of creating knowledge often results into tight and wholesome commitment by individuals within a group. There are two key elements that practically support externalisation. To begin with, the manner in which the tacit knowledge is applied. This implies the mode in which tacit knowledge is converted into open or explicit knowledge. At this juncture, there are special techniques that are used. For instance, ideas generated by an individual require special techniques for transmitting the same in a manner that will be understood by others as clearly as possible. An individual may decide to use figurative language so that the actual latent meaning of the interpretation is brought to the surface. Besides, the use of visuals can also enhance the process of externalization. A business forum whereby employees are being trained on certain skills and competences may require the use of imagery as part and parcel of bringing out the actual meaning of the content being delivered. A business forum whereby employees are being trained on certain skills and competences may require the use of imagery as part and parcel of bringing out the actual meaning of the content being delivered

The second most important element during the process of externalization is the need to translate tacit knowledge into formats that can not only be understood, but also appraised by other parties. Inductive or deducting logic may be required to exercise this element of externalization. In reference to the case study of Monsanto company, the management has facilitated knowledge management in externalisation mode through the setting up of information technology platform

Combination

The Monsanto company has managed to use combination mode in its daily operations. There are two main issues of great import at this stage namely diffusion and communicating. Moreover, knowledge needs to be put into a recognizable system at this stage. In actual practice, there are three main processes that are heavily dependent on combination. Firstly, the need to tap and incorporate new knowledge is paramount. For the case of Monsanto company, it may entail gathering knowledge disposed at the external such as information obtained from the public domain as well as data gathered from the company and other external sources. When this information is put together, it amounts to combination. Secondly, when explicit knowledge is disseminated, presentations and meetings are used to transfer the very knowledge. The members of the organisation are then in a position to receive the new knowledge. Lastly, the editing process of explicit knowledge makes it possible for the end users to understand and enjoy the usage (Henczel, 2001).

The process of combination creates a platform through which an agreement can be based. In addition, decision making by an organisation and taking of tangible steps can only be justified by the application of the combined process. Moreover, there are myriad social processes that are involved in converting explicit knowledge. Therefore, Monsanto can improve its knowledge management by using the combination mode on a regular basis.

Internalization

When explicit knowledge is converted into tacit knowledge of an organisation, it is referred to as internalization. It is upon the individual employees within an organisation to indentify the set of desired knowledge before internalizing it finally. Through capacity building and training, an individual will be in a position to acquire the knowledge derived from an organisation and then use the given knowledge to achieve the objectives of the organisation.

Practically, there are two main dimensions that support the process of internalisation. To begin with, explicit knowledge is both action and practice oriented. Hence, in order to internalise explicit knowledge, it is vital for individuals or organizations at large to actualize the various organizational practices such as innovation and strategies. Second, experiments can be used to initiate the learning process such that a virtual environment can indeed play an integral role in learning process of new concepts (Antonelli, Geuna & Steinmueller, 2000).

At Monsanto, the process of internalization has been attained to some significant level. The information and knowledge generated by the company has been used to by individual workers as part of the learning process.

References

Antonelli, C., Geuna, A. and Steinmueller, W. E. (2000) “Information and communication technologies and the production, distribution and use of knowledge”. International Journal of Technology Management, 20: 72-94.

Chaffey, D. & Wood, S. (2006). Business Information Management – Improving performance using information Systems, New York: Prentice Hall.

Firestone, M.J. & McElroy, W.M. (2003). Key issues in the new knowledge management, Burlington: Executive Information Systems Inc.

Henczel, S. (2001) “The information audit as a first step towards effective knowledge management.” Information Outlook, 5 (6): 48-62.

Maier, R. (2007). Knowledge Management Systems: Information and Communication Technologies for Knowledge Management, Verlag: Springer.