Such processes as globalization, industrialization, and the development of international relations have a tremendous impact on people and their businesses. An understanding of existing national and ethnic differences enhances organizational functioning and success in global strategies (Adler 9). Effective communication among individuals and organizations is an integral step in the creation of diverse global teams, and multiculturalism is the reality that cannot be ignored (Hussain 44). There are many approaches to manage science and cultural values in multicultural environments, and the contributions of Hofstede, Laurent, and Dadfer and Gustavsson play an important role.In only 3 hours we’ll deliver a custom Cultural Values and Manpower Management in Multicultural Organizations essay written 100% from scratch Get help
In companies, stereotypes and judgments emerge when the representatives of different nations start cooperating. Communication is usually based on clear standards and fair norms. Hofstede paid attention to values as they indicate human desires but “not their perceptions of what actually went on” and reflect differences in people (“The Cultural Relativity of Organizational Practices” 77-78). He believed that the recognition of values created a solid background for managing differences between countries. His four dimensions of cultural differences (individualism/collectivism, power distance, uncertainty avoidance, masculinity/femininity) help leaders understand their subordinates and choose the most effective means of motivation and communication (Hofstede, “The Cultural Relativity of Organizational Practices” 78). Besides, Hofstede explained that management science is hardly universal by its definition, and the “employed person” is the “only universal component (“Management Scientists Are Human” 12). His model sheds light on the roots of human behaviors and decisions, which is crucial for manpower management in a multicultural environment.
Laurent is another organizational theorist who introduced four alternative dimensions through the prism of his statistical analysis. He offered to view organizations as authority systems, role-formalization systems, hierarchical-relationship systems, and political systems (Laurent 78). As soon as an organization and people in it meets certain criteria, a particular management style is recommended. For example, if a company is defined as a hierarchical-relationship system, it is expected from managers to know more than their subordinates (Laurent 85). In this case, the management of manpower should be organized from the top and improved in regard to employees’ needs and organizational resources.
Relying on poorly discussed management aspects in specific areas, researchers from different countries continue making their contributions. Dadfar and Gustavsson underline that cultural diversity may become a competitive advantage for organizations and a possibility to stay flexible in different situations (90). Instead of considering a multicultural environment as a challenge, these authors recommend organizing homogeneous groups from the representatives of different cultures, which evokes pride and improved performance (Dadfar and Gustavsson 91). Together with understanding organizational frameworks and analyzing people, this idea has already inspired many leaders around the globe. Cultural values should not be treated as the cause of manpower division and management but as a source of additional motivation and creativity for a company.
In conclusion, the contributions of Hostede, Laurent, or Dadfer and Gustavsson to management science and cultural diversity in the workplace remain significant. These theorists demonstrated how it is possible to use challenges and weaknesses and obtain benefits. Instead of being afraid of multiculturalism and cultural diffusion, it is high time to face the fact that diversity is a benefit if it is in the hands of a mature and well-trained leader. Sometimes, people are not ready to cooperate or have poor awareness of how to communicate out of their ethnic groups. New management models are introduced regularly to consider what has already been achieved and what improvements may be necessary in the future.
Adler, Nancy. International Dimensions of Organizational Behavior. 5th ed., South-Western Thomson Learning, 2008.
Dadfar, Hossein, and Peter Gustavsson. “Competition by Effective Management of Cultural Diversity: The Case of International Construction Projects.” International Studies of Management & Organization, vol. 22, no. 4, 1992, pp. 81-92.Academic experts
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Hofstede, Geert. “The Cultural Relativity of Organizational Practices and Theories.” Journal of International Business Studies, vol. 14, no, 2, 1983, pp. 75-89.
“Management Scientists Are Human.” Management Science, vol. 40, no. 1, 1994, pp. 4-13.
Hussain, Shafaat. “Managing Communication Challenges in Multicultural Organizations.” International Journal of Media, Journalism and Mass Communications, vol. 4, no. 2, 2018, pp. 44-49.
Laurent, Andre. “The Cultural Diversity of Western Conceptions of Management.” International Studies of Management & Organization, vol. 13, no. 1-2, 1983, pp. 75-96.