Key Methods of Managing and Organizing People

Subject: Organizational Management
Pages: 15
Words: 4048
Reading time:
15 min
Study level: PhD


This paper aims to analyze and identify the key methods of managing and organizing people within a business organization. As a result, to perform this research, it is vital to focus on understanding the theories, principles, terminologies, and concepts, which are associated with individual and group behavior within an organizational context. In addition, it is also essential to focus on developing an analytical and integrated skill in applying knowledge to enhance individual and organizational effectiveness in a wide range of organizations (whether profit, nonprofit, or governmental) in a complex global economy. Apart from this, to carry out this research work, it is also very important to concentrate on the understanding of leadership theories and application of skills, on the encouragement of self-reflection regarding the role of a business practitioner, as well as on the concept of motivation, communication, and structural properties of the current business organizations. However, to better identify the key methods of managing and organizing people, this paper will also deal with the knowledge of leader-effectiveness and awareness of leadership styles, apart from demonstrating critical thinking skills regarding the issues in the business environment and the demonstration of effective written and verbal communication skills of the human resources of today’s businesses.

Understanding of the Theories, Principles, Terminologies, and Concepts

To understand the theories, principles, terminologies, and concepts associated with individual and group behavior within an organizational context, it is vital to focus on several complex factors. As a result, to have an unambiguous and precise analysis of the key notion, it is highly essential to consider first the theories, principles, terminologies, and concepts related to the individual behavior within an organizational context. Griffin (2013) has pointed out that recognizing and knowing the individuals in an organization is actually a highly significant contemplation for any business leader in the world; as a result, it is prudent to set up a fundamental agenda, which will be able to assist competently the comprehension process as part of the mental indenture or expectation. It is notable that the individual workers who are employed in the firms possess some expectations regarding what they would give to the firm, as well as what they would obtain in turn; additionally, the firms also struggle to attain the most favorable job to suit a particular individual, but this procedure gets difficult due to individual differences (Griffin, 2013).

Griffin (2013) has also pointed out that individuality is comparatively the steady set of mental and behavioral features that differentiate one human being from the other; in this context, the individuality characteristics are sociability, preciseness, unenthusiastic sentiment, extraversion, and honesty; however, locus of power, self-efficiency, totalitarianism, Machiavellianism, self-admiration, and menace-managing tendency are also vital in this regard. The author has beautifully noted that to understand the theories, principles, terminologies, and concepts associated with the individual behavior within an organizational context, one must first concentrate on understanding the personal outlooks of each member of staff, which are based on sentiment, acquaintance, and projected behavior. Although the individuality factor is quite unsteady, certain approaches are flexible; moreover, job contentment or disappointment and managerial pledge are significant occupational attitudes; in addition, Griffin (2013) noted that awareness is the set of procedures through which a human being becomes conscious of information regarding the surroundings.

It is important to note at this point that the fundamental perceptual processes include discerning awareness and stereotyping; however, the perception and acknowledgment processes are also intimately related factors, whereas ‘strain’ is a person’s reply to a tough incentive; nevertheless, some researchers noted that the general adaptation pattern delineates the fundamental hassle progression. Such strain may be the result of excessive work, a tough responsibility, and interpersonal demands; the upshots of strain contain managerial and personal effects, in addition to exhaustion; however, to lower strain, a number of tasks are needed to be performed so that individual behavior could be enhanced within an organizational context.

At this stage, it would be prudent to consider the theories, principles, terminologies, and concepts correlated with the group behavior within an organizational perspective, placing the most important authority on the incorporation of knowledge. According to Kreitner (2002), a group can be referred to as a number of generously interacting individuals who possess combined standards and objectives together with common characteristics; organizational psychologist Edgar Schein, on the other hand, has amazingly pointed out that the size of a group is restricted by means of the potentials of joint dealings and joint wakefulness between the colleagues. Kreitner (2002) has also noted that the teams, panels, subdivisions of branches, elites, and a variety of other informal members amid managerial members would fit in the definition of the group; it is notable that the individuals adhere into the groups, and even are employed to those in order to complete a number of different aims and objectives of business leaders.

According to Kreitner (2002), where the group has been shaped by bosses to assist the business to carry out the aims, it is believed to be a formal group; formal groups characteristically put on the tags of work-group, panel, board, or task force; such groups chiefly accomplish two indispensable tasks (corporate and personal), but composite amalgamations of these are always present. The author has also noted that the informal group is formed if the affiliates have a superseding idea of joining collectively for common interest; however, in some cases, the formal and informal groups overlie, and the allure of overlying formal and informal groups more frequently turns to be challenging.

The figure below shows the framework and stages of group development; it is notable from the figure that the key stages are forming, storming, complying with norms, performing, adjourning, and returning to independence; it also suggests that several individual issues and group issues may occur in the entire process:

The Framework and Stages of Group Development
Figure 1: The Framework and Stages of Group Development. Source: Kreitner (2002)

Kreitner (2002) has wonderfully put forward a very useful guideline regarding the features that a successful group should possess to be victorious in the longer period; as a result, this guideline has been outlined in the table below:

(I) Understandable intention Notably, the foresight, assignment, objective, or job of the group should be precisely defined and everybody should acknowledge this as the exact set of the action plan
(II) Relaxed attitude It is vital for the group members to get an atmosphere, which is more casual, friendly, comfortable, and peaceful; in addition, the group must not possess any noticeable anxieties or even symptoms of monotony
(III) Contribution The group must join into fruitful dialogue almost every week, and everybody should be optimistic to contribute to it
(IV) Paying attention A successful group would take part ineffectual listening methods, for example, inquiring, interpreting, and shortening the processes in order to achieve better outcomes
(VI) Polite divergence Divergences could be present in a group; however, the group should be at ease in such cases; as a result, they should learn to shun efficiently the repressing clashes, which lie inside
(VII) Agreement of decisions In case of vital decisions, the objective must be widespread; however, it may not be agreed upon by means of honest dialogue between the group members, evasion of official voting, or straightforward cooperation in most the circumstances
(VIII) Sincere contact between members It is highly essential to make sure that the group members are feeling free to convey their outlooks in different tasks and other actions; it is also important to make sure that the numbers of secret schedules are very less in number; in addition, the contact must also take place outside of the official meetings
(IX) Comprehensible responsibility and employment coursework There must be comprehensible expectations regarding the responsibility and employment coursework of the group; moreover, if an action is taken, obvious tasks should be prepared, acknowledged, and conducted; on the other hand, the tasks should be allotted justly amid the group members
(X) Collective control If the group possesses an official head, management tasks move in due course depending on situations, group requirements, and members’ talents; in addition, the official head leads towards proper performance and assists in the establishment of encouraging customs; yet, the heads should allow delegating the power among the members to better motivate them and to generate newer ideas
(XI) Peripheral associations The author has noted that to carry out better performances, it is vital for the group members to expend time in improving some essential associations and connections outside of the office, which would help bring together the reserves and construct the reliability with significant performers in other branches of the firm
(XII) Create a diversified group It is also very essential to make sure that the group is diversified enough to create a varied workforce within which it would be possible to generate fresh ideas and allow those ideas to be implemented based on the quality and not based on whether the idea has been generated by a person from an ethnic background
(XIII) Self-evaluation Occasionally, each member of the group should evaluate their performances to see the extent to which they were able to perform successfully in the due course of action (Sorgenfrei & Wrigley, 2005)

Table 1: The features that a successful group must possess. Source: Self-generated from Kreitner (2002)

Develop analytical and integration skills

Sorgenfrei & Wrigley (2005) stated that organizations (profit, nonprofit and governmental) apply different approaches and initiatives to enhance individual and organizational effectiveness in a complex global economy and constantly changing external and internal environment. According to the view of Sorgenfrei & Wrigley (2005), Giffen (2004), and Browne & Keeley (2004), organizations should require to integrate different strategies to become successful along with responding appropriately and meet existing and future challenges. However, Sorgenfrei & Wrigley (2005), Giffen (2004), Hall (2002), and Browne & Keeley (2004) defined analytical skills as the comprehensive assessment of an objective, group, or arrangement with the intention of interpreting or explaining it; in addition, this skill relates with its ability to scrutinize and understand the complex global economy. At the same time, it incorporates the ability to examine the economic situation, understand dynamics, observe aspects from a different point of view, identify the key success factors and major risks, recognize the sense to information, develop easy business structure, and so on (Sorgenfrei & Wrigley, 2005; Giffen, 2004; Hall, 2002; and Browne & Keeley, 2004). On the other hand, the concept of integration skills refer to the procedure of adjusting to new situations to become better suited to the adverse financial condition in the global market (Sorgenfrei & Wrigley, 2005; Mintzberg & Quinn, 1996; Giffen, 2004; Hall, 2002; and Browne & Keeley, 2004); however, it illustrates a method of assimilation and adjustment, for instance

  • Assimilation: new experiences along with knowledge-based on events in the global business environment (Sorgenfrei & Wrigley, 2005; Mintzberg & Quinn, 1996; and Giffen, 2004);
  • Adjustment: develop new ways of thinking process consistent with the new knowledge and actions; in addition, it incorporates the ability to adjust actions appropriately, develop awareness program, react proactively to altering situations, design new course of action to integrate for the future development; however, the following figure gives the idea in this regard:
Process of organizational analysis and integration skills
Graph 2: Process of organizational analysis and integration skills. Source: Sorgenfrei & Wrigley (2005)

An understanding of leadership theories and application skills

Higgs (2003) has noted that the individuality of the leader has the most significant role in implementing an ideal leadership; however, the regions of efficiency must be identified in the system, which must be harmonious with the fundamental qualities of the leader; leadership theories must be well utilized to make sure that the upcoming leadership approach makes sense. Dulewicz and Higgs (2005) have pointed out that numerous factors are present that the leaders of today’s business organizations have to consider to make sure that their selected methods are elegant in terms of overall performances; however, the fundamental requirements, which are needed to be a successful leader are noted in this part of the paper.

Cacioppe (1997) has put forward the key capability areas; for example, the leaders of today’s business organizations have to show the envisaging ability to recognize an obvious portrait of the future that would notify the method by which human resources of the firms could manage their labors and develop their expertise in the most alluring and efficient way. Fiedler (1967) and Dulewicz and Higgs (2004) has also put forward the fact that good leaders should have the ability to connect and involve the human resources of the firms by identifying the suitable technique for every person to appreciate the idea and therefore, the method by which they could contribute in the overall performances of the business organization. According to Fiedler (1967), leaders must facilitate performing with an aptitude and latent skill of the person, and generating the atmosphere in which these can be released; they would be able to inquire with those associated in the firm and cheer liberal and honest debate; moreover, they must enlarge and construct their ability and assist the creation of the envisages.

Dulewicz and Higgs (2004), however, have typically stressed on individual features of the leaders; to be more specific, these features include legitimacy (that is staying unadulterated and not trying to engage in recreational position, or acting in a controlled system), integrity (that is staying reliable in what he states or performs), and ‘will’ (that is leading the firm towards a goal). Dulewicz and Higgs (2005) have pointed out that the leaders are supposed to have self-confidence (capacity to carry out a sensible assessment of own abilities and faiths that the leader can attain), self-consciousness (the capacity to realize the person “who lies within himself”), and self-expression ability (the capacity to express and convey his message to everyone else in the firm).

To encourage self-reflection regarding the role of a business practitioner

Fiedler (1967) noted that to encourage self-reflection regarding the role of a business practitioner, it is important to oversee their respective working practices regularly to assist the development of their behavior and resource; moreover, they must also learn to admit their strengths and weaknesses; if self-reflection ability is not encouraged, the business practitioner will continue creating similar errors again.

Motivation, Communication, and Structural Properties of Organizations

Altınöz (2009) has noted that in numerous firms, the organizational structure shows the manners and the eminence of interpersonal communication; moreover, better-stratified firms could use formal techniques of communication between leaders and workers; temporarily, minor firms want a flat type of organizational structure to maintain abrupt and casual communication; moreover, effectual leaders learn to match proper communication-styles to the firm’s standards. The following table shows how through effective motivational strategies, the communication and structural properties of organizations can be enhanced in the longer term:

(I) Progress inspiration and concentrate on staff preservation It is important for the firms to switch to theoretical frameworks put forward by Maslow, Herzberg, and Mayo, and set aside any motivational practices which are encouraged by Taylorism; however, Altınöz (2009) has noted that the leaders will have to switch to compensations like flat salaries in addition to profit-sharing, yearly dividends, and fringe reimbursements, for example, sponsorship to clubs and vacation spots, small interest charges and reduction on firm’s products and services
In addition, it is important to make sure that the firms focus more on high-quality working condition, extremely varied, attractive, and swiveled tasks, equivalent work opportunities, better allocation of power, job design (that comprises job revolution, job enhancement, empowerment, and team-working) and even more interestingly, incorporation of McGregor’s theory Y concept to modify the attitude of the bosses, and thanking the superior performers in due course; it is vital to state that Altınöz (2009) has pointed out that all these renovations would assist the business to sustain more employees
(II) Accept a situational method of management In addition, Swartling and Poksinska (2013) have noted that the situational frameworks indicate the altitude of enthusiasm of inferior workers, the capacity of the managerial affiliates, leader-affiliate connection, how organizers observe the state of affairs, the altitude of strain, temper, and many other essential factors, which are necessary to understand to progress in the longer term
On the other hand, Swartling and Poksinska (2013) have also pointed out that the underlying principles imply this approach to be very effective in the sense that situational method of management can better engage the workers, whereas autocratic approaches are appropriate where workers are treated like machines
(III) Accept lean production methods in actions and concentrate on total quality management methods Swartling and Poksinska (2013) have also pointed out that through accepting lean manufacture procedure, just-in-time administration, kaizen method, and total quality management, firms could conquer troubles of stoppages in manufacture, poor quality upshots, and so on; moreover, at the manufacturing process, the workers must be classified into multi-skilled squads, and each squad must be responsible for a detailed division of construction system encompassing quality control and wellbeing and security
Altınöz (2009) has pointed out that through implementing Kaizen or “continuous improvement”, it is possible to bring about the wide-ranging progression of the corporation; on the other hand, it is imperative to perform enormous labor force training before implementing all these methods; as a result, all these will lead to competence enlargement owing to augmented enthusiasm
(IV) Change organizational structure Altınöz (2009) and Swartling and Poksinska (2013) has identified that some reorganization is mandatory in the firms in terms of interior recruitments and job replacements inside; however, the entire reorganization procedure must be carried out by keeping in mind the fact that the reorganization must be in accord with the firm’s key principles, notions, values, missions, and visions

Table 2: Effective communication and structural properties through motivational strategies. Source: Self generated from Altınöz (2009) and Swartling and Poksinska (2013)

Knowledge of Leader Effectiveness and Awareness of Leadership Styles

Fiedler (1967) has beautifully pointed out that to bring about the utmost effectiveness in the leader’s skills, knowledge, and overall performance in handling the people within the organization, they must be greatly aware of the suggested leadership styles by the renowned researchers, authors, intellectuals, and management gurus. Fiedler (1967) has also noted that no matter how the organization is performing, how skilled its workers are, how efficient the leaders are, or even how much successfully the teams are performing, the leaders must follow some distinct leadership styles and work by that to allow the workers to move forward steadily. The following table shows that different kinds of leadership styles are present through which the effectiveness and awareness of leaders can be increased:

Independent controlling pattern Dulewicz and Higgs (2004) noted that in a democratic leading pattern, the members of the team are motivated to share their thoughts and views (although the chief person holds the ultimate decision-taking capacities); as a result, the members of the team feel more affianced in the procedure; moreover, creativeness is motivated and compensated here. As members are motivated to share their views, this kind of leadership could generate enhanced feelings and further imaginative resolutions to troubles; they also feel more engaged and devoted to assignments, making it possible to care about the final results; moreover, studies on leadership styles has also indicated that democratic leadership leads to greater efficiency amid the teammates
Dictatorial controlling pattern Cacioppe (1997) noted that in this kind of controlling pattern, the business leaders possess a great deal of control over their human resources; as a result, the human resources get no chance to give suggestions, even though those are in the best interest of the firm; however, the advantage of this kind of leadership is that it is extremely proficient. Dulewicz and Higgs (2004) pointed out that here decisions are taken promptly, and the work is done professionally; however, the disadvantage is that the majority of human resources dislike being dealt with in this technique; as a result, tyrannical leadership can frequently cause elevated levels of non-attendance and higher staff turnover; yet, this style is suitable for amateurish tasks
Laissez-Faire controlling pattern Dulewicz and Higgs (2005) pointed out that it is also identified as the “hands-off¨ technique and this technique gives the chance to the human resources to make their decision using discretionary power and perform work in their way; however, this type of leadership can also transpire naturally, while leader lacks adequate power over their work and their human resources. Dulewicz and Higgs (2005) also noted that such leaders might give their groups total autonomy to do their work and set their targets; however, such leaders offer team-support with capital and counsel (where required), but otherwise, never get concerned; this controlling pattern could be effectual if the leader observes performance and gives advice to the group members frequently
Charismatic controlling pattern Higgs (2003) noted that charismatic controlling pattern can inspire keenness in the groups and is active in inspiring others to move ahead; notably, this aptitude to generate enthusiasm and obligation has a huge benefit; moreover, such leaders are highly focused on themselves, and so may not desire to modify anything; however, this requires great responsibility

Table 3: Leader Effectiveness and Awareness of Leadership Styles. Source: Self-generated from Fiedler (1967), Dulewicz and Higgs (2004), Cacioppe (1997), Dulewicz and Higgs (2005), and Higgs (2003)

Critical thinking skills regarding issues in the business environment

Kreitzberg & Kreitzberg (2009) stated that critical thinking skills in business are the capacity to observe circumstances, visibly realize them from various viewpoints and take proper steps; in addition, Moxham (2012) pointed out that the business environment is becoming more competitive due to several influential factors, such as, increase customer demands, continuous change, and innovation. However, Kreitzberg & Kreitzberg (2009) argued that critical thinkers critically assess the information and issues to find out possible alternatives and outcomes to set different strategies and implement these strategies by re-assessing assumptions and the decision-making process. On the other hand, Kreitzberg & Kreitzberg (2009) conducted a research where more than 78% of interviewees argued that the importance of critical thinking skills would increase over time, about 70% of interviewees believed that high schools do have not sufficient skills, and 73% interviewees believed that two-year college degree holders have adequate critical thinking skills. At the same time, Kreitzberg & Kreitzberg (2009) and Moxham (2012) argued that employers try to attract, and recruit talented critical thinkers, but it is very difficult to select competent employees; therefore, employers should require to develop the competencies of the existing workforce in the organization. The researchers addressed in the previous studies that critical thinking is multifaceted, which involves intellectual interest; therefore, it needs to have the willingness to spend time in reflection at the challenging situation (Kreitzberg & Kreitzberg, 2009; and Moxham, 2012). However, this concept starts with general competencies, such as, interpretation skills, scientific or legal reasoning to handle any specific issues by addressing real problems in the business environment to make effective decisions (Kreitzberg & Kreitzberg, 2009; and Moxham, 2012). Here, it is very significant to state that integration of new technology, such as, use of social media has enhanced the power of critical thinking while it becomes very easy to access information; in addition, it allows seeking suggestions of the experts and (Kreitzberg & Kreitzberg, 2009; and Moxham, 2012).

Demonstrating effective written and verbal communication skills

The business leaders, managers, and human resources need to make sure that they are all showing effective written and verbal communication skills in their workplace to make sure that the regular tasks are carried out swiftly and smartly without any hassles, misunderstanding, or miscommunication among teams. In cases where the human resources fail to effectively carry out written and verbal communication skills, the leaders should take apt steps to better train them in due regard, so that the firm’s operations are conducted without any hindrance and the production is also amplified.


At this stage of the paper, it is notable that to effectively manage and organize people within a modern business organization, the leaders of the contemporary era must recognize the significance of skilled human resources, together with the necessity to provide them with proper motivational tools, for example, better reimbursement, more fringe benefits, and greater dividends or gifts. Therefore, apart from implementing smart leadership approaches and many other effective strategies, it is also necessary to implement lean production techniques, theoretical frameworks put forward by Maslow, Herzberg, and Mayo, as well as McGregor’s theory Y concept.

Reference List

Altınöz, M. (2009). An Overall Approach to the Communication of Organizations in Conventional and Virtual Offices. International Journal of Human and Social Sciences, 4(3), 218-224.

Browne, M. N. & Keeley, S. M. (2004). Asking the Right Questions: A Guide to Critical Thinking. London: Pearson Education.

Cacioppe, R. (1997). Leadership moment by moment. Leadership & Organization Development Journal, 18(7), 335-346.

Dulewicz, V. & Higgs, M. J. (2004). A new instrument to assess leadership dimensions and styles. Selection & Development Review, 20(2), 7-12.

Dulewicz, V. & Higgs, M. (2005). Assessing leadership styles and organizational context. Journal of Managerial Psychology, 20(2), 105-123.

Fiedler, F. (1967). Theory of Leadership Effectiveness. New York, the USA: McGraw-Hill.

Giffen, J. (2004).Analytical Skills Training Programme. Oxford: INTRAC.

Griffin, R. W. (2013). Basic Elements of Individual Behavior in Organizations.

Hall, R. H. (2002). Organizations – Structures, Processes & Outcomes. London: Prentice Hall.

Higgs, M. J. (2003). Developments in leadership thinking. Leadership & Organization Development Journal, 24(5), 273-84.

Kreitner. (2002). Groups and Teamwork.

Kreitzberg, A. P. & Kreitzberg, C. B. (2009). Critical Thinking: A Business Survival Skill for the 21st Century. Web.

Mintzberg, H. & Quinn, J. B. (1996). The Strategy Process: Concepts, Context, Cases. New Jersey: Prentice Hall.

Moxham, C. (2012). The importance of critical thinking in today’s business environment. Web.

Sorgenfrei, M. & Wrigley, R. (2005). Building Analytical and Adaptive Capacities for Organisational Effectiveness. Web.

Swartling, D. & Poksinska, B. (2013). Management Initiation of Continuous Improvement from a Motivational Perspective. Journal of Applied Economics and Business Research, 3(2), 81-94.