A theory is a set of ideas that explain something using defined principles. A theory has three main elements, which indicate the extent to which theory has to demonstrate a universal attribute. These components include definitions, concepts and ideas, goals or objectives, changes, or predictions of a specific phenomenon. There are seven ways to judge a theory, given its scope, namely logical consistency, parsimony, utility, testability, heurism, and test of time.
The Learning Organizations Theory by Peter Senge and Gareth Morgan states that “A learning organization is a place where people are continually discovering how they create their reality. And how they change it.” It is somewhat specific in the sense that it focuses on learning organizations. Its components are precise. The goal is to change human reality after discovering how to create it in learning organizations. The five disciplines given are team learning, personal mastery, system thinking, and building a shared vision.
Judging the theory against the seven ways outlined above provides the following deductions: Its scope is somewhat limited, based on learning within the institutional environment, and it has logical consistency because the terms used in the explanation are straightforward. It states that a firm gains knowledge as a result of the continuous exchange of information. It is not only easy to understand but also practically valuable. The accuracy of the theory can be tested by adopting the options provided. It stimulates new thinking about the kind of realities created over a long time within the same work environment. However, it is not relevant for a long time since present-day technology has significantly advanced; hence people perform minimal work at their places, especially when using machines.
The next theory is The Hawthorne Effect Theory by Elton Mayo, which stated that unexpected favors interacted with physical factors, affecting work output. His view was based on the alteration of physical conditions to improve productivity. The theory is universal since there are so many elements in the physical environment that can be changed. Its goal is to highlight the impact of altered physical conditions on a worker’s productivity. Judging the theory shows its applicability in a broad scope to industrial and psychological aspects. It has logical consistency as its accuracy has already been tested, and it is straightforward.