The expectancy for success scale under analysis can have both advantages and drawbacks. Employers can benefit from this scale as they can monitor the confidence levels of their employees and implement the scale for potential testing workers (Nevid & Rathus, 2005). If an employer has a clearly outlined goal, it needs focused and confident employees to be sure about the achievement, and the results of the scale test can help select such employees. The latter can use the test to monitor their professional and personal development, set goals and create unique qualities for their achievement.
However, the reliability of the test is doubted because it involves the subjective answers, i. e. assessments that people have about themselves. A person might want to look more confident and answer not how they think of the given statements (O’hara, 2005). Therefore, the validity of the test is also doubted as the personal assessment tool cannot provide objective results and benefit either employees or employers. Drawing from this, the advantage of the test considered is its utility for selecting confident employees and monitoring one’s confidence and belief in success. The drawback of the test is its subjectivity, which does not allow retrieving objective results to apply in any organization.
Scholars have taken their time to develop theories explaining the development of human personalities. The two most notable theories of personality include Freud’s and Jung’s theories of personality. The former is the theory of psychosexual development of the personality. The latter completely reverses Freud’s view on human personality in which sexual product is not so important at all (Nevid & Rathus, 2005).
The essence of the theory by Sigmund Freud lies in the fact that the human mind is divided into three layers conscious, subconscious, and unconscious. Freud compared the reason to an iceberg in which only the highest layer is visible, it is called the conscious, and the bulk of the iceberg is covered with what Freud referred to as subconscious and unconscious (Nevid & Rathus, 2005). The structure of personality, according to Freud, also comprised three sections, including the id, ego, and superego.
Freud also defined five stages of psychosexual development of the character; they include oral, anal, phallic, latency, and genital stages. According to Freud, every personality develops b the pattern of these stages. Finally, it goes through the appearance of the id, ego, and superego, which states that all conscious or unconscious actions are conditioned by psychosexual development and any complications a person might experience (Nevid & Rathus, 2005).
The theory of personality formulated by Carl Jung is called the psychodynamic one (Nevid & Rathus, 2005). Jung rejected the overall importance of sexual development in creating a character and offered the concept of Self that united Freud’s id, ego, and superego and was supposed to motivate all human activities and thoughts (Nevid & Rathus, 2005). Jung stressed the hereditary character of the Self and emphasized the need to consider unconscious impulses for behaviors in combination with the conscious Self (Nevid & Rathus, 2005). Thus, both recognizing the role of the unconscious in the human personality, Freud’s and Jung’s theories differ in the former’s emphasis on the sexual aspect of the nature and latter’s focus on its behavioral aspect.
Axia College’s Writing Style Handbook. Web.
Nevid, J.S., & Rathus, S.A. (2005). Psychology and the challenges of life: Adjustment in the new millennium (9th ed.). Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons.
O’hara, S (2005). What can you do with a major in psychology? Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons.