Organizational Theory (OT)
Organizational theory is an extension of an organization which is defined as a constituted social system comprising of either individuals or groups working together to achieve certain stipulated or agreed on goals; in the same context organizational theory is be defined as a study of either a single or multiple organizations with the aim of establishing common traits to enable efficient maximization of productivity and to also assist in resolving probable future related problems geared towards achievement of stakeholders objectives; in summary organizational theory refers to a multidisciplinary study of organizations from multiple viewpoints, methods and levels of analysis. The organizational theory involves the study of the following three basic components.
Individual processes; Individual processes include three theories namely: motivation theory, role theory and personal theory. Motivation theory is basically what makes an individual behave the way he or she does or the force behind individual actions; role theory refers to the tasks assigned to an individual or a description of a certain position within an organization in the sense that to a large extend would determine how one carries himself around other people and finally personality theory which is very critical in determining whether organizational objectives are met.
Group processes; Working in groups is a very crucial means of achieving organizational objectives because it encourages leadership amongst the group and personal growth which would bring forth immense influence ultimately ease the achievement of organizational goals. Organizational processes; this refers to the organizational structure and design which is important in determining flow of information within and beyond the organization and also the flow of power; it is essential in the sense that it determines who does what within the organization and also eases accountability within various organizational units in an organization.
Organizational Development (OD)
It refers to a well thought plan or effort encompassing an entire organization aimed at boosting the organizational effectiveness and viability; it involves embracing changes within or outside the organization and adopting a strategy so as to impact beliefs, attitudes and organizational values in order to effectively adapt to dynamisms within our societies. The definition goes beyond what is being done with the aim of making the organization better to include that unique kind of change designed with the sole aim of attaining a desired kind of result.
The concept involves team work effort towards realization of certain laid down or known objectives; this implies that as long as the team keeps on working together, development of the organization would be paramount as a result of steady achievement of organizational objectives. Organization development is a continuous, systematic process aimed at implementing effective change in an organization; organization development constitutes both field of applied behavioral science focused on understanding and managing organizational change and field of scientific study and inquiry, a clear implication that it is multidisciplinary in nature and incorporates ideas from sociology, psychology, and theories of motivation, learning, and personality.