According to Turner (2019), only 13% of all employees are “highly engaged” in their work, and 26% are uninvolved. That is why the study of the factors affecting employee engagement is of particular importance and relevance. Kaaviyapriya and Xavier (2021) highlight such aspects in employee engagement as organizational-related (policies and benefits), personal-related (employee mindsets, self-efficacy, and personality), team-related (leadership’s style and interpersonal relationships), and job-related factors (career development, job characteristics, and empowerment). Horváthová et al. indicate that job relevance, job stability, pay, leadership, organizational values and behaviors, self-fulfillment, and work-life balance are the primary factors affecting employee engagement.
Stoyanova and Iliev (2017) argue that the critical factors for employee engagement are good work and personal life balance, a positive corporate image, good management-employee relationships, and personal contributions to the organization. Therefore, based on the analyzed sources, it can be concluded that the key factors affecting employee engagement are the relevance of work, management efficiency, the state of the work environment, opportunities for growth, and leadership.
Based on the identified factors of employee engagement, some practices can be formulated that management can apply to improve the productive impact of each factor. The first and perhaps the most essential aspect of employee engagement is the alignment of the essence of the work with the interests and goals of the person, which increases the value of the work. Thus, it is necessary for a person to be interested in the position, the basis of which can be the remuneration of labor or the employee’s contribution to the result. In this regard, management should constantly monitor these aspects and strive to satisfy employees.
Turner (2019) notes that it is vital to maintain good governance, which includes clearly setting goals, training and developing employees, and maintaining a culture of continuous development. Furthermore, if employers want employees to become more involved, they must provide them with a flexible and supportive work environment. Bauer and Erdogan (2017) point out the need for continuous management recognition of employee efforts and results. An equally important prerequisite for increasing employee engagement is creating growth opportunities. Last but not least condition for improving engagement is leadership practice, including developing and clarifying a deeper meaning of purpose, building transparent relationships, and continually investing in people.
Bauer, T., & Erdogan, B. (2017). Organizational behavior (2nd ed.), Soomo Learning.
Horváthová, P., Mikušová, M. & Kashi, K. (2019). Evaluation of the employees’ engagement factors importance methodology including generation Y. Economic Research-Ekonomska Istraživanja, 32(1), pp. 3895-3917. Web.
Kaaviyapriya, K. & Xavier, P. (2021). A study about the factors affecting employee engagement and its outcomes, International Journal of Management, 11(12), pp 536-554. Web.
Stoyanova, T. & Iliev, I. (2017). Employee engagement factor for organizational excellence, International Journal of Business and Economic Sciences Applied Research, 10(1), pp. 23-29.
Turner, P. (2019). Employee engagement in contemporary organizations: Maintaining high productivity and sustained competitiveness, Springer International Publishing.